Index

The Handbook of Business and Corruption

ISBN: 978-1-78635-446-4, eISBN: 978-1-78635-445-7

Publication date: 29 August 2017

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2017), "Index", Aßländer, M. and Hudson, S. (Ed.) The Handbook of Business and Corruption, Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 527-551. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78635-445-720161024

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:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

A&P
, 488

Abacha, San
, 170, 171, 173

Abbott Australasia
, 470–477

ABN Amro
, 264

Absolute political power
, 78

Absolute truth
, 88

Access charges
, 485

“According-to-rule” transactions
, 211

Accountability
, 338, 340, 341, 352, 355

Accounting
, 10, 55, 58, 59, 64, 66, 140, 296–297, 425

fraudulent
, 136, 291–295

internal controls
, 218

profession
, 239, 290, 293

struggle
, 393, 409

transparency
, 260

Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME)
, 347

Adamu, Amos
, 435

Adiaphora
, 77, 88

Administration
, 161, 170, 211, 212, 314, 383, 385, 463, 482, 483

contracts
, 410

land
, 364

police
, 317

public
, 54, 55

tendering
, 410

Advertising fees
, 485

Advertorials
, 461, 467

Africa, crony capitalism in
, 123

“Against-the-rule” transactions
, 211

Agent(s)
, 33, 37, 51–52

corrupt
, 27–32, 40

perspective of facilitating payments
, 53–54

rational
, 45

as rational profit-seekers
, 29

See also Principal–agent theory

Agricultural sector, corruption in
, 363–385

extension service
, 367–368, 381

farmers’ input demand
, 375

forms and types of
, 364–369

government procurement programs, corruption and irregularities in
, 368–369

impact of
, 375–381

input market
, 365–367, 376–379

lack of proper representation, monitoring, and supervision
, 370–371

market structure and corruption
, 371–374

micro level factors
, 374–375

policy and institutional factors
, 369–375

policy recommendations
, 381–385

power imbalance and farmers’ low bargaining power
, 369–370

procurement program
, 379–381

Alienation
, 38, 99

Alternative institution building methods
, 137–139

American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA)
, 293, 294

Accounting Research Bulletins
, 292

Anderson, Arthur
, 293

Annunzio–Wylie AML Act of 1992
, 263

Anticorruption laws
, 394

Anticorruption measures
, 57, 63–65, 212, 216, 337-343, 347-348, 351-355, 377, 477-478

distribution of medicines
, 353–355

manufacturing of medicines
, 343

marketing practices
, 347–348

media
, 477–478

procurement of medicines
, 354–355

registration processes
, 340–341

research and development
, 337–339

Anticorruption programs. See Anticorruption measures

Anti-money laundering (AML)
, 240–243, 251, 259, 264, 270, 273, 274

timeline of
, 278

ANZ Bank of Australia
, 468

Appeal to higher loyalties
, 31

Apple
, 283

Arroyo, Augustin C.
, 429

Asia
, 102, 142, 168, 171, 188, 264, 311, 441

Asian Football Confederation (AFC)
, 443

Aspire Academy for Sports Excellence
, 440

Association of American Medical Colleges
, 338

Audit
, 204, 225, 291, 293–297, 316, 434

Australia

Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)
, 461

Australian Taxation Office
, 402

construction industry
, 399–402, 417

crony capitalism in
, 142

Football Federation of Australia (FFA)
, 439–440

resource governance
, 180

shale gas production
, 193

Autonomy
, 82, 85

Bad faith, Sartre’s notion of
, 74–76

Banco Santander Central Hispano
, 264

Bangladesh

Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS)
, 369

banking sector
, 137–138

corruption in agricultural sector
, 363–385

Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE)
, 367

Department of Fisheries (DoF)
, 367

Department of Livestock (DLS)
, 367

Ban Ki-moon
, 330

Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi
, 258

Bankruptcy
, 10

Banking sector
, 237–251, 273, 469

Bank secrecy, and offshore tax evasion
, 243–250

Bank Secrecy Act of 1970
, 263, 271

Barclays
, 137, 258, 264

Barwick, Sir Garfield
, 401

BBC Hoax
, 468

Bechtel
, 170

Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC
, 10

Bernstein, Carl
, 477

Biased news
, 459–461

Bid Promotion Committee
, 428

Bidrigging
, 393–394

Bin Hammam, Mohamed
, 438–441

Black market
, 353, 354, 432

Blair, Jayson
, 459

Blazer, Charles
, 440–441

BNP Paribas
, 242–243, 258

Brazil

Brazilian General Comptroller Office (Controladoria-Geral da União – CGU)
, 434

FIFA World Cup 2014
, 432–435

jeitinho
, 106

market growth
, 272

power shortages and blackouts
, 180

resource governance
, 180

Bribe Payers’ Index
, 180

Bribery
, 13, 17, 27–28, 51, 52, 54, 64, 161, 211, 218, 320, 351, 364, 393

commercial
, 9

definition of
, 8–9, 19, 482

distinguished from extortion
, 9

distinguished from gift-giving
, 79, 84, 88

of foreign public officials
, 62

institutional
, 484

Bribery Act of 2010
, 397, 413

Bristol Employment Tribunal
, 397

British East India Company
, 4

Broadcast
, 121, 136, 433, 461–464

Buckley, Well
, 440

Buddhism
, 85

Building Information Systems (BIM)
, 416

Bureaucracy
, 35, 37, 110

Bureaucratic corruption
, 9

Burke, Edmund
, 143

Burma, crony capitalism in
, 123

Business organizations

role in combating facilitating payments
, 63–64

“Business Partner Compliance Due Diligence” program
, 225

Business Principles for Countering Bribery
, 64

Business Transactions
, 214

Task Force on Anti-Bribery and Corruption
, 231

Cambodia

bribery payment
, 484

Campbell Soup Со.
, 491

Canada

Pharmaceutical Advertising Advisory Board
, 346

shale gas production
, 193

Capital

investment
, 182, 188, 191

social
, 99

Capitalism

crony
, 17, 107, 108, 120–124

patrimonial
, 238

Capital One
, 462

Caribbean Football Union
, 436

Carrefour
, 483

Cascaded payments
, 55

Cash-for-comment
, 464, 467, 469–470

Cash-payments
, 486

Causes of corruption
, 26, 31, 123, 143, 153, 157–160, 164, 165-166, 172, 181, 369–375

Center for Media and Democracy (CMD)
, 462

Certified financial analyst (CFA)
, 286

Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB)
, 396–397, 416

Chase Bank
, 264

“Children Overboard,”
, 465–466

China

bribery payment
, 484

business organizations in
, 111–112

clean trade policy framework
, 201

construction industry
, 398–399

corruption in agricultural sector
, 364

corruption reform in
, 130

crony capitalism in
, 123

egalitarianism
, 105

expertise and capital investment in extractive industries
, 189

market growth
, 272

guanxi phenomenon
, 96, 106, 77–80, 392

low demand, low prices scenario
, 191

slotting fees
, 486

Chodan, Wojciech
, 171–172

Chung, Mong-Joon
, 440

Citibank
, 264

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
, 17–18, 19

City of London
, 258

Civil disobedience
, 468

Civil society

role in combating facilitating payments
, 63–64

Clean Hands Trusts
, 201

Clean Trade Act
, 201

Clean Trade Policy Framework
, 201

Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS)
, 261

Client
, 51

perspective of facilitating payments
, 54–55

Clinton, Bill
, 267

Code of Ethics of the Australian Institute of Public Relations (PRIA)
, 479

Codes of conduct
, 307, 314, 316

Codes of ethics
, 281, 315, 316

Cole Commission
, 399–400

Collective action
, 63, 65

Collective Action Guide
, 230

Collusion of corruption
, 320, 394, 417, 470–477

Colombia

wealth inequality
, 107

Commerzbank
, 258

Committee of Concerned Citizens (CCC)
, 370

Common good
, 82

Communication, as exchange of truth claims
, 86–88

Companies
, 64–66

role in combating facilitating payments
, 64–66

Competition
, 186–187

Competition Commission of South Africa
, 403

Complaint center, establishment of
, 385

Compliance
, 33, 57, 61, 65, 66, 120, 125, 126, 129, 131, 204, 218, 222–226, 228, 229, 244, 245, 247, 249–251, 316, 318, 342, 346, 367, 400, 416, 445

by financial institutions, failure of
, 240–243

legal
, 255–274

power-based top-down
, 134–137

CONCACAF
, 439, 442

Confidential payments
, 222

Construction industry corruption
, 391–418

Australia
, 399–402

challenges for
, 412–417

China
, 398–399

dynamic risk-based model
, 408–412

Germany
, 397–398

Hong Kong
, 398–399

North America
, 396

Sub-Saharan Africa
, 402–405

survey research
, 405–408

Turkey
, 398

United Kingdom
, 396–397

Consultants

investment
, 286–287

pension
, 286

Consulting, investment
, 287–289

Consumers
, 181, 184, 187, 189, 193, 267, 283, 307–309, 311, 312, 314, 331, 344, 348, 482, 492, 494–499, 501

Contemporary research on corruption, foundations of
, 153–155

Continuing Medical Education (CME) programmes
, 347

Contract research organizations (CROs)
, 335

Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions
, 59–60

Corporate citizenship
, 204

Corporate culture
, 215–219, 221, 226–229

Corporate governance
, 28

Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
, 126, 205

Corrupt agent
, 27–32, 40

Corrupt environment
, 54, 135, 136, 138, 153, 155, 165, 210–215, 220, 230, 483

Corruption

bureaucratic
, 9

challenges to reduce
, 160–164

commercial
, 395

definition of
, 5-8, 11-17, 27, 35–36, 210, 330, 392–394, 458

democratic
, 50

as deviant behavior
, 6

effects of
, 394–395

features of, characterizing
, 456–459

functionality of
, 155-160

in governments across the world
, 151–176

grand
, 211, 212

implications of
, 45–46

iterations of
, 8–11

logic of exchange
, 6

market-centered definitions of
, 5

model
, 395

organizational
, 3–20

petty
, 12, 49–67, 211, 212

philosophy of
, 27, 34–40, 45, 46

public interest-centered definitions of
, 5

public office-centered definitions of
, 5

reform
, 119–143

as shadow politics
, 6–7

as social decline
, 6

as system of measurable perceptions
, 6

See also individual entries

Corruption Perception Index (CPI)
, 196

Cost of corruption (CoC)
, 370–371

Council of South African Trade Unions (COSATU)
, 403

Cover pricing
, 394

Credit Agricole
, 259

Credit Suisse
, 258, 137, 264

Crimes

as social facts
, 85

in sport
, 424–426

Criminality

human
, 83

religious
, 83

Critical Management Studies
, 33

Cromme, Gerhard
, 217–218, 223, 226

Crony capitalism
, 17, 107, 108

system dimensions of
, 120–124

Cronyism
, 95–113, 393

culture and
, 101–103

in developing and developed economies
, 108–109

disadvantages of
, 98–100

egalitarianism and
, 103–109

external forces
, 100

internal forces
, 100–101

resources and benefits of
, 97–98

CTS Eventim
, 432

Culture

and cronyism
, 101–103

definition of
, 101

Durkheim’s notion of
, 81–86

of integrity, building
, 225–226

Malinowski’s notion of
, 76–77

and nepotism
, 101–103

Customer Due Diligence (CDD)
, 445

Cybercrime
, 483

Cynicism
, 185

Cyprus

Ministry of Health
, 350

nepotism and cronyism in
, 96

De Beers
, 204–205

Debt financing, political control of
, 122

Declaration of Helsinki (2008)
, 337

Deferred prosecution agreement (DPA)
, 247, 249, 250

Democracy
, 19, 73, 158, 173, 214, 330, 447

Democratic corruption
, 50

Denial of injury
, 31

Denial of victim
, 31

Denmark

crony capitalism in
, 142

Deutsche Bank
, 258, 264

Developing countries
, 84, 96, 107, 181, 182, 186, 212, 238, 322, 342, 349, 364, 370, 394, 413, 483

Development
, 152, 154, 155, 157, 159, 160, 162, 166, 168, 170

Disguised bribes
, 71–90

bad faith and
, 74–76

Display fees
, 487

Distribution of medicines
, 353–355

anticorruption measures
, 354–355

Dodd–Frank Whistleblowing Program
, 338

Donation
, 309, 400–401

Donor programs
, 342

“Dr. Suguro” archetype
, 128

Drugs. See Pharmaceutical sector corruption

Drug-trafficking
, 425

Due Diligence Code
, 244–245

Durkheim’s notion of culture
, 81–86

Dynamic risk-based model, for corruption
, 408–412

Ebbers, Bernie
, 10

Eckert, Hans-Joachim
, 436, 437, 440

Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF)
, 404

Economic growth
, 99, 157, 160, 169, 175, 364, 483

Economic welfare
, 296

Education expenditure and corruption, relationship between
, 156–157

Efficiency, corruption of
, 39, 46

Egalitarianism
, 103–109

hierarchy versus
, 102, 104

Embezzlement
, 9–10, 28, 210, 308, 393

Employment
, 229, 295, 354, 355, 365, 482

England. See United Kingdom (UK)

Enron scandal
, 4, 33, 131, 293

Environment

corrupt
, 54, 135, 136, 138, 153, 155, 165, 210–215, 220, 230, 483

macro environmental obstacles
, 120–125

E-procurement system
, 321

Equality of opportunity
, 46, 104, 105

Equal treatment. See Equality of opportunity

Eskom
, 405

Esquivel, Rafael
, 442

Ethical climate
, 6

Ethical distance
, 33

Ethical imperialism
, 56

Ethical Investment Research Service (EIRIS)
, 216

Ethics
, 79, 99, 134–136, 139, 141

business
, 131

code of
, 315, 316

of facilitating payments. See Ethics of facilitating payments

information about cooperation from
, 126

material rewards
, 134

reciprocal
, 133

Ethics of facilitating payments
, 53–56

agent’s perspective
, 53–54

client’s perspective
, 54–55

European Central Bank
, 130

financial support to crony capitalism
, 122

European Commission
, 223

European Medicines Agency
, 337

European Parliament
, 9

European Union (EU)
, 63, 130, 351

financial support to crony capitalism
, 122

Existential truth
, 86–87

Expediting payments
, 50

Export
, 159, 182, 186, 196, 201, 340, 342, 433

Extension office activities, monitoring
, 384–385

Extension service in agriculture
, 367–368, 381

Extortion
, 9, 51, 52, 54, 64, 122, 124, 500

distinguished from bribery
, 9

Extractive industries corruption
, 179–206

reasons for
, 181–183

resource dependent countries
, 180

reversing corruption, contingencies of
, 205–206

scenario analysis
, 187–196

supply side corruption
, 183–187

transparency and reversing corruption
, 197–202

transparency initiatives
, 202–205

Extractive industries, definition of
, 181

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)
, 184, 199, 203–205

Face-saving (mianzi)
, 77

Facilitating payments
, 49–67, 482, 485

ethics of
, 53–56

features of
, 50–53

Failure fees
, 487, 491

Fairness
, 99, 198

Fake news
, 462–463

Family
, 27, 38, 83, 84, 96, 97, 99, 102, 103n3, 106, 108, 110, 112, 128, 129, 164, 170, 210, 213, 238, 239, 257, 295, 306, 308, 310, 393, 404, 407, 464, 484

Fantini, Sergio Santander
, 430

Farmers

groups and organizations, strengthening
, 383–384

input demand, impact of corruption in
, 375

low bargaining power
, 369–370

subsidies to, providing
, 382–383

Faulkner, John
, 465

“Faust” archetype
, 128

Favoritism
, 18, 78, 98, 320, 322, 351

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
, 65, 258

Federalism
, 297, 400, 433

Federal Reserve
, 258, 261, 270, 271

Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
, 501–502

Supermarket Code of Practice
, 501

Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)
, 297–298

Ethics Committee
, 436

Executive Committee
, 425n1, 440

Players’ Agents Regulations
, 425n1

Regulations on Working with Intermediaries
, 425n1

See also FIFA World Cup corruption

Fictional news
, 459

Fiction as fact
, 467

Fiduciary duty
, 287

FIFA World Cup corruption
, 424–426, 432–443

2010
, 403, 414

2014
, 432–435

2018
, 435–437

2022
, 435–437, 438–439

scandals and consequences
, 439–443

5th Pillar
, 64

Fight against petty corruption
, 56–66

business organizations and civil society, role of
, 63–64

companies, role of
, 64–66

legislative treatment
, 57–63

Figueredo, Eugenio
, 442

Filho, Álvaro de Melo
, 446

Finance
, 7, 17, 97, 122, 132, 137, 153, 154, 170, 185, 203, 279–299, 307, 367, 417

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
, 238–242, 244, 443–444

Financial auditing sector
, 279–299

Financial auditors
, 290

and corruption
, 291–295

Financial crisis
, 280, 282, 297

Financial Fraud Task Force (FFTF)
, 263

Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (FINRA)
, 274, 281, 282

Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs)
, 444

Financialization
, 257, 280

Financial Reporting Council (FRC)

“Ethical Standards for Auditors,”
, 294–295

Financial sector, corruption in
, 279–299

importance of
, 284–285

FinTech sector
, 274

Firms

role in supply side corruption
, 183–187

Five Forces Framework
, 187–188

Fofana, Mohamadou Lamine
, 434

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA)
, 343

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
, 335, 346

Amendment Act
, 337

Football. See Soccer

Football Federation of Australia (FFA)
, 439–440

Forbes
, 289

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (FCPA)
, 58–59, 60, 62, 65, 171–172, 214, 218, 260

Foreign direct investment (FDI)
, 155, 214

Foreign occupation, and corruption
, 123–124

France

crony capitalism in
, 142

egalitarianism
, 105

slotting fees
, 486

Fraud
, 28, 316–319

defined
, 306

Fraud Triangle
, 395

Gafir, Zein El Abdin Abdel
, 429

Gambling
, 408

Ganga, Jean-Claude
, 429–430

Garcia, Michael
, 435–439

Gas
, 167–168

liquefaction
, 168

liquefied natural
, 168, 173

natural
, 167, 168

General Motors
, 462

Georgia, transition economies of
, 161

Germany

construction industry
, 397–398

crony capitalism in
, 124–125, 142

egalitarianism
, 104

ethics and compliance codes
, 137

slotting fees
, 486

Strafgesetzbuch
, 8–9

“Get rich quick” syndrome
, 79

Ghana

egalitarianism
, 105

Ghostwriting
, 336

Gift-giving
, 32, 306–307, 314, 331

basic functions of, distorting
, 71–90

communicational function
, 86–89

cultural function of
, 76–80

distinguished from bribery
, 79, 84, 88

social function of
, 80–86

Glass, Stephen
, 459

GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)
, 342, 345

Global Agenda Council on Transparency and Anti-Corruption
, 231

Global anti-money laundering standards
, 240–243

Global Fund
, 342

Globalization
, 257

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)
, 204–205

Goldblum, Stanley
, 292

Gonzalez, Henry
, 273

Good manufacturing practices (GMPs)
, 341–342, 343

Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics, and Compliance
, 61

Google
, 283

“Gorbachev” archetype
, 128

Governance

corporate
, 28

good
, 333, 370

weak
, 221–222

Governance for Extractive Industries Institute (GOXI)
, 196

Government Accountability Office (GAO)
, 241–242, 292

Government procurement programs, corruption and irregularities in
, 368–369

Gqirana, Thulani
, 404

Grameen Bank
, 138

Grand corruption
, 211, 212

Gratitude payments to doctors
, 331

Grease money
, 49–67, 482

Great Britain. See United Kingdom (UK)

Great Depression
, 284, 291–293

Great Recession
, 136, 142, 280, 283

Greece, crony capitalism in
, 123

Greenvale
, 484, 502

Greenwald, Robert
, 459

Groceries Code Adjudicator (GCA)
, 502

Gross domestic product (GDP)
, 482

Guanxi phenomenon
, 77–80, 96, 392

Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises
, 61

Gyles Commission
, 399, 400

Hard law
, 57

Hawala
, 256n1

Healthcare
, 156, 223, 332, 342, 349, 353

Health payment systems, corruption in
, 308

Hierarchy versus egalitarianism
, 102, 104

High demand, high prices scenario
, 188–190, 195

competitive rivalry
, 188

power of buyers
, 189

power of suppliers
, 190

threat of entry
, 188–189

threat of substitutes
, 189

Hill and Knowlton
, 463

Holding Individuals Accountable and Deterring Money Laundering Act of 2013
, 259

Holland, crony capitalism in
, 142

Home country
, 125, 137, 174, 216, 230

Hong Kong

construction industry
, 398–399

informal relationships in
, 78

wealth inequality
, 107

Host country
, 162, 183, 198, 202, 203, 214, 424

Howard, John
, 466

HSBC Bank
, 258, 264

Human capital
, 153, 175

Hungary

formal patient payments, abolishment of
, 322

Hush money
, 222

IKEA
, 482, 483

Import
, 157, 169, 365, 366, 372, 373, 433

corruption
, 165

market
, 365

moral
, 81–86

social
, 81–86

Incentives
, 384–385

India

crony capitalism in
, 123

market growth
, 272

Indiana Constitution
, 102

Individualism
, 102

Individuals, and corruption
, 164–166

Indochina, crony capitalism in
, 123

Indonesia

crony capitalism in
, 123

nepotism and cronyism in
, 108

wealth inequality
, 107

Inequality
, 106-107, 257

Infomercials
, 461

Informal patient payments

macro level
, 318–321

meso level
, 314–318

micro level
, 309–314

Informal payments in health care
, 305–323

attitudes towards
, 313

definition of
, 306–309

Informal provider payments
, 315, 322

Information asymmetries
, 28, 307, 318

Information and Communication Networks (ICN)
, 217

Infrastructure
, 156, 157, 166, 168–170, 173, 183–186, 190, 194, 196, 198, 201, 206, 212, 223, 274, 280, 352, 397, 403, 410, 430

ING
, 258

Inglehardt–Welzel map
, 105

Injustice
, 54, 99

Insider information
, 186, 210, 213

Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA)
, 290

Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences
, 338

Institutional corruption
, 283, 295–298

Institutional economics
, 28, 29, 40

Institutional failure
, 4

Institutional/governance structures
, 183–187, 190, 192, 194

Institutionalization
, 30, 45

Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS)
, 216

Institutions
, 152, 154, 165, 175

Insurance payment
, 490

Integrity
, 12, 53, 66, 72, 204–206, 210, 216, 225–229, 241, 273, 294, 332, 337, 343, 353, 436, 439, 447

Intel
, 462

Intermediaries
, 182, 204, 245, 261, 425

Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
, 245, 246, 248, 249

International Anti-Bribery and Fair Competition Act of 1998
, 58n9

International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB)
, 294

International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)

corruption, definition of
, 8

Rules of Conduct to Combat Extortion and Bribery
, 63–64

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)
, 338

International Federation of Accountants (IFAC)
, 294

International Financial Action Group (FATF)
, 424–425

International Monetary Fund (IMF)
, 56, 130, 185, 243

corruption, definition of
, 7–8

financial support to crony capitalism
, 122

Plenary Meeting of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) on Money Laundering
, 262

International Olympic Committee (IOC)
, 427–429

International Standard on Quality Control (ISQC)
, 294

International Standards on Auditing (ISAs)
, 294

International Standards on Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism & Proliferation
, 241

International Transfer Certificates
, 426

Interpol
, 330

Introductory allowance
, 487–493

economic explanations of
, 489–491

empirical evidence of
, 491–493

Introductory fees
, 487

Investment consultants
, 286–287

Investment consulting
, 287–289

Invisibility
, 456, 457

Invitations to lunches
, 32

Iran

Iranian Transactions Regulations
, 267

supply side corruption
, 184

Iraq, supply side corruption in
, 184

Ireland, crony capitalism in
, 142

Italy, nepotism and cronyism in
, 96

IT sector, corruption in
, 209–231

Japan, premodern corruption system in
, 130

Jaspers’ notion of truth claims
, 86–89

Jeitinho (Brazil)
, 106

JGC (Japan Gas Corporation)
, 169, 172

Job satisfaction
, 99

Johnson & Johnson scandal
, 344

Johnson, David R.
, 429

Jouissance
, 43, 44

Journalists
, 200, 240, 289, 455, 460–464, 467, 470–478

JP Morgan
, 264

Judges
, 9, 19, 102, 122, 130, 430, 443

Judgment deficit
, 298

Jurisdiction
, 16, 58, 239, 240, 244, 257, 260, 261, 271, 283

Justice
, 39, 46, 53

Kaeser, Joe
, 230, 231

KBR (Kellogg Brown and Root)
, 171, 172

Keep-off-the-shelves fees
, 487

Keita, Lamine
, 430

Khasis, Lev
, 492

Kickbacks
, 319, 320, 322, 351, 393, 406, 407, 501

Kill fees
, 487

Kim, Jim Yong
, 330

Kleinfeld, Klaus
, 223, 228

Know your customer (KYC) requirements
, 274

Koloskov, Viacheslav
, 437

KPMG
, 297–298, 416

Krammer, Georges
, 171, 172

Kurer, Peter
, 246–247

Kurtz, Howard
, 460

Labor unions
, 140, 221

Language
, 43–44

Lasky, Benjamin
, 270

Latin America

crony capitalism in
, 123

nepotism and cronyism in
, 96

Law

anticorruption
, 394

hard
, 57

soft
, 60n14

tax
, 217, 219, 247

Laws, John
, 469–470

Lawyers
, 134, 140, 246, 288

Legality
, 31

Legislative treatment of petty corruption
, 57–63

Bribery Act of 2011
, 62

European Union
, 63

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977
, 58–59

OECD Convention
, 59–61

United Nations Convention against Corruption
, 61

Legitimacy
, 110–112

Lehman Brothers
, 297

License to operate
, 186, 243

Li, Eduardo
, 442

LIBOR scandal
, 258

Libya, supply side corruption in
, 184

Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
, 168–169, 173

Liquid purification techniques
, 168

Lloyds TSB
, 258

Lobbying
, 108, 109

Logistic contracts
, 502

London Stock Exchange
, 188

Löscher, Peter
, 217, 223–226, 228

Loss of commonalities
, 76–80

Loss of communicability
, 86–89

Loss of social bonds
, 81–86

Low demand, low prices scenario
, 191–196

competitive rivalry
, 192

power of buyers
, 193

power of suppliers
, 193–196

threat of entry
, 192

threat of substitutes
, 192–193

Loyalty
, 213, 217, 220–221, 229

Lynch, Jessica
, 459

MacMaster, Tom
, 467

Macro environmental obstacles to corruption reform
, 120–125

Macro institutional levels, vision and values at
, 129–130

Madoff, Bernie
, 10

Al Majid, Phaedra
, 438

Malaysia

crony capitalism in
, 123

wealth inequality
, 107

Malinowski’s notion of culture
, 76–77

Management
, 4, 26, 32, 33, 39, 99, 109, 134–136, 169, 171, 172, 180, 187, 196–198, 200, 204, 212, 215, 217, 218, 221–231, 242, 247, 263, 269, 270, 274, 295, 314, 331, 341, 351, 353, 354, 369, 396, 400, 410, 413–416

Manufacturing of medicines

anticorruption measures
, 343–344

corruption in
, 341–343

Marginal factor cost (MFC)
, 377, 378

Marginal physical product (MPP)
, 377–378

Marin, José Maria
, 442

Market(s/ing)

anticorruption measures
, 347–348

black
, 353, 354, 432

competitive
, 382

contracts
, 502

corruption in
, 344–347

input
, 365–367, 376–379

logic, corruption of
, 39

monitoring and supervision
, 384

structure
, 371–374

Martin Act of 1921
, 271

Marubeni
, 170

Masters, Chris
, 477

McCarthy, Joseph
, 477

McKinsey Global Institute
, 201

Media and Entertainment Arts Alliance (MEAA)

Code of Ethics
, 473

Media corruption
, 453–479

advertorials
, 461, 467

anticorruption measures
, 477–478

biased news
, 459–461

cash-for-comment
, 464, 467, 469–470

collusion of corruption
, 470–477

fake news
, 462–463

fictional news
, 459

fiction as fact
, 467

hackers
, 468–469

hoaxers
, 468–469

infomercials
, 461

news for sale
, 460–461

photo-manipulation
, 465

techno-media corruption
, 467–468

types of
, 459–466

Media release journalism
, 463, 467

Medicare fraud
, 348

Medtech industry
, 41

Mersiades, Bonita
, 438

Meso organizational level, vision and values at
, 131

Meso organizational obstacles to corruption reform
, 125–126

Metaphor of the ledger
, 31

Metro
, 482

Mexico

nepotism and cronyism in
, 96

wealth inequality
, 107

Micro individual level, vision and values at
, 131–132

Micro individual obstacles to corruption reform
, 127–129

Microlending alternative institution
, 137–138

Miller, Judith
, 460

Modern portfolio theory (MPT)
, 287

Money laundering
, 237–251, 255–274, 424–426, 441, 442, 444, 446, 483

global estimates of
, 261–262

integration stage of
, 240, 261

layering stage of
, 239–240, 260–261

placement stage of
, 239, 260

regulatory responses to
, 263–264

tools and techniques
, 261

Money Laundering Control Act of 1986
, 263

Monitoring
, 60, 63, 64, 66, 212, 222, 225, 227, 228, 241, 263, 274, 286, 308, 316, 321, 341, 347, 348, 351, 352, 355, 365, 366, 370–371, 384–385, 405, 416, 445, 447

Monopoly
, 108, 124, 181, 183, 197, 214, 215, 335, 348, 373, 495

Moosmayer, Klaus
, 226

Moral

authority
, 82, 83

autonomy
, 82, 85

behavior
, 55, 82

code
, 80, 84

consciousness
, 81–82

distance
, 46

hazard
, 315

import of culture
, 81–83

import of gift-giving
, 83–86

responsibility
, 54, 474, 475

Morality
, 75

Moral principles
, 81–83

Most-favored-company-clause
, 497–498, 500

Motivation
, 30, 82, 99, 181, 213, 310, 322, 344, 350, 379

Mukora, Charles Nderitu
, 430

Multinational enterprises (MNEs)
, 174

Multistakeholders. See Stakeholders

Murrow, Edward R.
, 477

Mutual gain negotiating
, 133

M.W. Kellogg
, 169

Myth of Gyges
, 453–454, 455, 463

Namibia, egalitarianism in
, 105–108

National Housing Enterprise (NHE)
, 106

National levels, vision and values at
, 129–130

National Minerals Agency
, 196

National resource companies
, 186

Natural gas
, 167, 168

Natural Resource Charter
, 200

Natural Resource Governance Institute (NRGI)
, 187–188, 191, 200

Natural Resource Charter
, 200

Resource Governance Index
, 180

Natural resources
, 121, 123, 159, 167, 168, 172–173, 180–185, 197, 199, 200

Navalny, Alexei
, 430

Nepotism
, 10, 95–113, 320, 393

culture and
, 101–103

in developing and developed economies
, 108–109

disadvantages of
, 98–100

egalitarianism and
, 103–109

external forces
, 100

internal forces
, 100–101

particularism and
, 109–112

resources and benefits of
, 97–98

universalism and
, 109–112

Netherlands

health care fraud and abuse
, 317

slotting fees
, 486

wealth inequality
, 107

Networking methods
, 132–134

News for sale
, 460–461

News of the World phone-hacking scandal
, 467–468

New store opening fees
, 487

New York Clearing House
, 261

New York State Department of Financial Services (NYSDFS)
, 258, 259, 265, 267–270, 273

complaint against Standard Chartered Bank
, 268

New Zealand

Medicine and Medical Devices Safety Authority
, 348

Nigeria

lower commodity prices
, 197

oil sector
, 196

power shortages and blackouts
, 180

TSKJ corruption scandal
, 166–174

Nigeria LNG
, 169

No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
, 464

Nokia Corporation
, 20

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
, 184, 189, 199, 202, 203, 368, 369, 370

Nonprosecution agreement (NPA)
, 249, 250

North America, construction industry in
, 396

Northern Italy, crony capitalism in
, 142

Northern Spain, crony capitalism in
, 142

Norway

crony capitalism in
, 142

resource governance
, 180

sovereign wealth fund
, 194

NovoNordis
, 131

Nuzman, Carlos Arthur
, 432

O & P Event Marketing
, 432

Obama Administration
, 263

Obstacles to corruption reform

macro environmental obstacles
, 120–125

meso organizational obstacles
, 125–126

micro individual obstacles
, 127–129

Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)
, 263, 267, 268, 270, 271

Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence
, 263

Office of the President of the United States
, 263

Offshore tax evasion, bank secrecy and
, 243–250

Olympic Bid Invitation Committee
, 427

Olympic Games corruption
, 424–432

Olympiads of Ancient Greece
, 426–427

Summer Olympic Games (2016)
, 431–432

Winter Olympic Games (1998)
, 427–428

Winter Olympic Games (2002)
, 429–430

Winter Olympic Games (2014)
, 430–431

Ombudsmen
, 222, 225

Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988
, 58

Ontology, positive
, 38, 39

Opportunistic behavior
, 78, 79

Opportunity
, 395, 408, 456

Organizational commitment
, 99

Organizational complexity
, 33, 46

Organizational corruption
, 3–20

Organizational structures
, 370, 383

Organizational theories of corruption
, 30–34

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
, 58n9, 59–61, 217, 262

Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions
, 59–60, 214

corruption, definition of
, 15

Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics, and Compliance
, 61

Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises
, 61

Recommendation on Bribery in International Business Transactions
, 59

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
, 193

Organized crime
, 238, 434, 441, 446

Othering
, 43, 44, 76

Out-of-pocket payments
, 310

Pakistan, crony capitalism in
, 123

Panama Papers
, 239, 477

Parmalat SpA
, 10

Particularism
, 109–112

Partnering against Corruption Initiative (PACI)
, 63

Patrimonial capitalism
, 238

Patriot Act
, 263

Patronage
, 393

Pay-for-space payments
, 485, 486

Pay-to-stay fee. See Slotting allowance

Peace, Sir John
, 272

Penalties
, 85, 135, 172, 225, 241–243, 245, 249–251, 258, 259, 263, 274, 295, 315, 321, 338, 348, 354, 355, 403, 413

Pension consultants
, 286

Petrobrás
, 180, 435

Petroleum sector
, 166

Petty corruption
, 12, 49–67, 211, 212

definition of
, 50

fight against
, 56–66

Pfizer
, 462

“Phaedo” archetype
, 129

Pharmaceutical Advertising Advisory Board (PAAB)
, 346

Pharmaceutical sector corruption
, 41, 137, 308, 318–320, 470–477, 329–355

distribution of medicines
, 353–355

manufacturing of medicines
, 341–343

marketing practices
, 344–348

methodology
, 333

procurement of medicines
, 349–353

registration processes
, 339–341

research and development
, 334–339

Philosophy of corruption
, 27, 34–40, 45, 46

Physician Payment Sunshine Act
, 347

Pieth, Mark
, 438

Plame, Valerie
, 460

Platini, Michel François
, 437

Poland

slotting fees
, 486

Police
, 317, 401, 407, 432, 454, 461, 477

Political institutions
, 29

Politically Exposed Persons (PEPs)
, 241, 263, 445

Political parties
, 106, 108, 121, 138, 140, 153, 164, 200, 210, 370, 383

Politicians
, 57, 83, 108, 203, 230, 257, 282, 404, 470

Positive ontology
, 38, 39

Postpositivist approach
, 42

Poverty
, 257

Power
, 6–14, 19, 20, 40, 134–137, 210, 456

of buyers
, 189

distance
, 104, 105

imbalance
, 369–370

of suppliers
, 190

Preferential Procurement Policy Framework
, 405

Presentation fees
, 487

Press. See Media corruption

Pressure
, 395, 408

Prevention of Corruption Performance Standards
, 204

Price

competition
, 482

bidding
, 169, 185–187, 197, 213, 320, 349, 351, 352, 393, 435–437, 439, 440, 494

PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC)
, 291, 483

Principal
, 28–30, 37, 52–53

Principal–agent theory
, 28–30, 37

Principles for Countering Bribery
, 63

Private sector
, 39, 40

Privatization
, 184–186

Procter & Gamble (P&G)
, 492

Procurement
, 308, 320

of medicines. See Procurement of medicines

program
, 379–381

Procurement of medicines

anticorruption measures
, 351–353

corruption in
, 349–351

isolated procurement corruption
, 350

systematic procurement corruption
, 350

Productivity, corruption and
, 123

Profit maximization
, 344, 377

Property rights
, 283, 433

Prosecutors
, 62, 102, 122, 130, 135, 216, 271, 432, 442, 443

Protected Disclosures Act
, 407

Protestantism
, 102

Pseudo-gifts
, 73, 90

Psychoanalysis of corruption
, 27, 40–46

Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB)
, 295

Public investment
, 181, 468

Public management
, 39

Public opinion
, 219, 230, 463

Public Oversight Board (POB)
, 293, 294

Public–private partnerships
, 280

Public Relations (PR)
, 470, 474–477, 479

Public sector
, 5, 33, 39, 50, 98, 121, 122, 264, 331, 332, 393, 415

“Publish What You Pay” (PWYP)
, 199

Pulling strings (UK)
, 106

Putin, Vladimir
, 430, 437

Qatar

FIFA World Cup 2022
, 435–436, 438–439

Qualified Intermediary Agreements (QIAs)
, 245

Quasiformal patient payments
, 313

Racketeer Influenced and Corruption Organizations Act (RICO)
, 338

Radio. See Broadcast

Randomized control trials (RCT)
, 334–337

Rather, Dan
, 459

Rational agent
, 45

Rational choice theory
, 46

Rationality
, 42, 284

Rationalization
, 30, 31, 33, 45-46, 395, 409, 457

Reagan, Ronald
, 267

Reciprocal ethical networking
, 133

Reciprocity (renqing)
, 77, 79

Recommendation on Bribery in International Business Transactions
, 59

Recruitment
, 111, 112, 337

Redressive action
, 215, 222–228

Red tape
, 366, 381

Reform methods
, 119–143

alternative institution building methods
, 137–139

bottom-up whistle-blowing methods
, 134–137

macro environmental obstacles
, 120–125

meso organizational obstacles
, 125–126

micro individual obstacles
, 127–129

power-based top-down compliance methods
, 134–137

social movement methods
, 139–141

vision and values based methods
, 129–132

win-win incentive and networking methods
, 132–134

Regional development banks
, 56

Registration processes

anticorruption measures
, 340–341

corruption in
, 339–340

Regulations
, 55, 72, 134, 211, 213, 217, 219, 221, 224–229, 267, 269, 280, 281, 284, 291, 298, 307, 316, 319–321, 334, 355, 370, 405, 445, 446, 483, 484

Regulatory responses to money laundering
, 263–264

Reith, Peter
, 465

Relative deprivation
, 78

Religion
, 83, 158, 458

Religious criminality
, 83

Rent-seeking behavior
, 156, 161, 182, 187

Reputation
, 51, 54, 55, 63, 79, 218, 223, 226, 227, 231, 241, 259, 269, 273, 336, 401, 402, 470

Research and development (R&D)
, 334–339

anticorruption measures
, 337–339

Resource Governance Index
, 180

Resources. See Natural resources

Responsive adjustment principle
, 227, 228

Retail industry corruption
, 481–503

critical assessment
, 500–503

introductory allowance
, 488–493

slotting allowance
, 487, 493–500

slotting fees
, 485–488, 500–503

Return on equity (ROE)
, 267

Reversing corruption
, 197–202

contingencies of
, 205–206

Riza, Shaha
, 10

Rocha, Julio
, 442

Roman Empire, decline of
, 4

Roosevelt, Franklin D.
, 291

Royal Bank of Scotland
, 258

Royal Dutch Shell
, 169

Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS)
, 416

Ruddock, Philip
, 465

Rules of Conduct to Combat Extortion and Bribery
, 63–64

Russia

expertise and capital investment in extractive industries
, 189

FIFA World Cup 2018
, 435–437

market growth
, 272

power of suppliers
, 193

slotting fees
, 486

svyazi
, 106

Sainsbury’s
, 484

Salaries
, 11, 13, 52, 100, 156, 212, 314, 316, 354

Sam, David
, 430

Sanctions
, 53, 56, 62, 65, 82, 86, 193, 218, 220, 225, 226, 241–243, 258, 259, 263, 267, 269, 271, 272, 274, 295, 315, 338, 343, 352, 353, 413, 447

Sanofi
, 137

Sarbanes–Oxley Act (SOX)
, 59, 295–298

Sartre’s notion of bad faith
, 74–76

Satellite media tours (SMTs)
, 462

Saudi Arabia

power of suppliers
, 193, 194

Scandals

Enron
, 4, 33, 131, 293

FIFA World Cup
, 439–443

Johnson & Johnson
, 344

LIBOR
, 258

News of the World
, 467–468

TSKJ
, 166–174

Watergate
, 477

WorldCom
, 10, 20, 293

Scandinavia
, 134

Scenario analysis
, 187–196

high demand, high prices scenario
, 188–190

low demand, low prices scenario
, 191–196

Schulenberg, Klaus-Peter
, 432

Securities Act of 1933
, 291

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
, 65, 135, 281, 286, 291–293, 295

Securities Exchange Act of 1934
, 260, 291

Security
, 64, 99, 169, 220, 227, 263, 354, 364, 365, 381, 403, 434, 437, 460, 463, 467–468

Self-interest
, 89

Self-justification
, 395, 457

Self-knowledge
, 457

Self-reflection
, 457, 458

Self-regarding gain
, 456, 457n4

Self-regulation
, 245, 281, 292, 294, 295, 298, 346

Self-respect
, 83

Serious Fraud Office (SFO)
, 65

Shadow economy
, 393

Shareholder
, 16, 28, 34, 46, 242, 282

Shelf fees
, 487

SHUJAN (Citizens for Good Governance)
, 370

Sibandze, David Sikhulumi
, 430

Siekaczek, Reinhard
, 220

Siemens
, 124–125

corrupt corporate culture in
, 209–231

patterns of corrupt culture
, 218–222

redressive actions
, 222–226

Siemens Integrity Initiative
, 231

Siemens Value Map
, 231

trust, rebuilding
, 226–230

Sierra Leone

lower commodity prices
, 197

mineral industry
, 196

Singapore

informal relationships in
, 78

wealth inequality
, 107

Silence money. See Hush money

Slotting allowance
, 487, 493–500

economic explanations of
, 495–498

empirical evidence of
, 498–500

Slotting fees
, 485–488

ethical issues in
, 500–503

types of
, 487

Smurfing
, 261n3

Snamprogetti
, 169

Soccer
, 403, 414

Social capital
, 99

Social contract
, 76

Social differentiation
, 39

Socialization
, 30, 31–2, 45, 46

Social morality
, 81–83

Social movement methods
, 139–141

Social weighting
, 31

Social welfare
, 152, 320, 395

Société Générale
, 264

Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT)
, 239, 261, 268

Soft law
, 60n14

Sokol, Bill
, 287

“Sophist” archetype
, 128–129

Soros, George
, 199

South Africa

Competition Commission of South Africa
, 403

corruption in construction industry
, 391–418

Council of South African Trade Unions
, 403–404

National Department of Public Works (NDPW)
, 404

Preferential Procurement Policy Framework
, 405

Protected Disclosures Act
, 407

survey research
, 405–408

Speed money
, 50, 482

Sports industry, corruption in
, 423–447

FIFA World Cups
, 432–443

Olympic Games
, 426–432

prevention and law enforcement
, 443–445

Sports industry, crimes in
, 424–426

Staged news
, 463–464

Stakeholders
, 10, 16, 20, 60, 72, 199, 200, 202, 203, 205, 206, 226–228, 230, 331, 332, 396, 407

Standard Chartered Bank
, 255–274

financial ratio summary
, 266

geographic ownership summary of
, 265

holdings of
, 265

money laundering allegations
, 267–270

NYSDFS complaint against
, 268

overview of
, 264–267

Regulatory Fines, 2012-2015
, 272

2012 and beyond
, 270–273

Standard operation procedures (SOPs)
, 340, 352

Starbucks
, 283

State Board of Accounts
, 102

State capture
, 320

States. See Nation states

Stephens, Donald
, 103n3

Stock-buy-out fees
, 487

Street money
, 487

Sub-Saharan Africa

construction industry
, 402–405

Substitute industries
, 189

Summer Olympic Games (2016), corruption in
, 431–432

Superego
, 43

Supermarket Code of Practice
, 501

Supply chain
, 224, 308, 319, 332, 333, 354

Supply side corruption
, 183–187

Suspicious Activity Reports (SARs)
, 263, 444, 447

Sustainability
, 131, 185, 189, 205, 231

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
, 16, 330

Sweden

crony capitalism in
, 142

egalitarianism
, 104

wealth inequality
, 107

Sweett Group
, 397

Swiss Bankers Association
, 244

Swiss Bank Program
, 249

Swiss Federal Banking Commission
, 245

Switzerland

bank secrecy and tax evasion
, 243–250

crony capitalism in
, 142

wealth inequality
, 107

Symbolic order
, 43

Systemic corruption
, 211

Systemic institutional failure
, 240–243

Systems theory, corruption on
, 39

Takkas, Costas
, 442

Tanzi, Calisto
, 10

Task Force on Anti-Bribery and Corruption
, 231

Taxation
, 161

Tax evasion
, 237–251

offshore, bank secrecy and
, 243–250

Tax law
, 217, 219, 247

Tea money
, 50

Technip
, 169, 171–172

Techno-media corruption
, 467–468

Telecommunication. See IT sector corruption

Temarii, Reynald
, 435, 436, 439–441

Tender rigging
, 417

Thailand

wealth inequality
, 107

Theft
, 9–10, 308

The Investment Integration Project (TIIP)
, 281

Tibble v. Edison International
, 286

Tips
, 78

Tokenism
, 393

Trade
, 4, 17, 139, 184, 201, 205, 214, 240, 263, 264, 267, 271, 282, 286, 290, 433, 437, 486, 489

Traditions
, 29, 83, 134, 157, 158, 173, 211, 306, 307, 321, 484

Traffic Sports International Inc.
, 442

Traffic Sports USA Inc.
, 442

Training programs
, 224, 227

Transfer Matching System (TMS)
, 426n1

Transparency
, 196–202, 337, 338, 340, 341, 343, 352, 355

at deal-making licensing stage
, 198–199

initiatives
, 202–205

of negotiated outcomes in contracts
, 198

Transparency International (TI)
, 107, 159, 162, 219, 330, 392, 396, 415

Bribe Payers’ Index
, 180

Business Principles for Countering Bribery
, 64, 66

corruption, definition of
, 7, 27, 35, 37, 210

Corruption Perception Index
, 196

Global Corruption Report
, 308

Trinidad and Tobago Federation of Football (TTFF)
, 436

Trust
, 6–9, 11–14, 19, 20, 201, 203

absolute
, 88

claims, Jaspers’ notion of
, 86–89

empty
, 89

existential
, 86

generalized
, 6

philosophical
, 87

rebuilding
, 226–230

ultimate
, 87, 89

universal
, 86

TSKJ (Technip, Snamprogetti, KBR, Japan Gas) corruption scandal
, 166–174

Turkey

construction industry
, 398

nepotism and cronyism in
, 96

UBS tax case
, 245–248, 264

UEFA
, 441

Uganda, egalitarianism in
, 105

UK Bribery Act of 2011 (BA)
, 62

Ukraine, transition economies of
, 161

Under-the-table or envelop payments. See Informal payments in health care

Undue influence
, 15–18

Unethical pro-organizational behavior
, 220

Unfair treatment
, 99

UN Global Compact
, 64

United Arab Emirates
, 273

United Kingdom (UK)

Bristol Employment Tribunal
, 397

construction industry
, 396–397, 413

Financial Supervisory Authority
, 271

House of Commons Culture, Media and Sport Committee
, 437

nepotism and cronyism in
, 108

pulling strings
, 106

resource governance
, 180

slotting fees
, 486

system of regulating auditors and accountants
, 294

wealth inequality
, 106–107

United Nations
, 15, 50

United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC)
, 15, 61

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
, 392

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
, 262

United States of America (USA)

campaign finance in
, 7

Department of Justice
, 65, 135, 227, 258, 270–272

Department of Labor
, 286, 289

National Institute of Health
, 348

nepotism and cronyism in
, 102–103

resource governance
, 180

Securities and Exchange Commission
, 135

sentencing guidelines
, 135

shale gas production
, 193

slotting fees
, 486

Treasury
, 258, 263, 267, 271

Universalism
, 109–112

Unskilled labor
, 341

Valcke, Jerôme
, 442

Value of marginal product (VMP)
, 377, 378

Values-based methods, of corruption reform

at macro institutional and national levels
, 129–130

at meso organizational level
, 131

at micro individual level
, 131–132

Venal corruption
, 282–283

Venezuela

power shortages and blackouts
, 180

Vietnam, bribery payment in
, 484

Vietz, Eginhard
, 230

Vision-based methods, of corruption reform

at macro institutional and national levels
, 129–130

at meso organizational level
, 131

at micro individual level
, 131–132

Vnesheconombank
, 431

Volkswagen
, 137

Volume bonus
, 487

Von Pierer, Heinrich
, 216, 217, 220, 223, 228

Walgreens
, 283

Wall Street
, 258

Wal-Mart
, 482, 483, 494, 499

Warner, Daryan
, 442

Warner, Daryll
, 442

Warner, Jack
, 436, 439, 441, 442

Wasta (Arab world)
, 106

Water
, 100, 410

Watergate scandal
, 477

Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs)
, 460, 466

Welch, Thomas K.
, 430

Welfare
, 308, 315, 322

social
, 152, 320, 395

economic
, 296

Whistle-blowing
, 120, 124, 125, 129, 134–137, 139, 141, 142, 225

White-collar crimes
, 271

Whitlam, Gough
, 401

Winters, Bill
, 273

Win-win incentive methods
, 132–134

Wolfowitz, Paul
, 10–11

Wolfsberg Group
, 264

Woodward, Bob
, 477

World Bank
, 56, 10–11, 330

corruption, definition of
, 7, 27, 35, 37

Governance for Extractive Industries Institute
, 196

World Bank Institute

Collective Action Guide
, 230

World Business Environment Survey (WBES)
, 159, 164

WorldCom scandal
, 10, 20, 293

World Cup. See FIFA World Cup corruption

World Economic Forum
, 63, 280

Global Agenda Council on Transparency and Anti-Corruption
, 231

World Health Organization (WHO)
, 330, 337, 338

World Trade Organization (WTO)
, 214–215

Xi Jinping
, 130

Yoshida, Kazutani
, 428

Yunus, Muhammad
, 138

Zhu, Min
, 256

Zimbabwe, egalitarianism in
, 105

Zuma, Jacob
, 403–404