Professional and collegiate sports face an ever increasing challenge from competition for sport fans’ attention and dollars as available alternatives proliferate. Teams are looking for new ways to make games more attractive in order to fill their seats. While true to some degree for all sports, Major League Baseball (MLB) has attracted the greatest attention from researchers and practitioners interested in increasing game attractiveness. The current study demonstrates a method that can be applied in many retail settings and reports on the most comprehensive research to date, examining every game played in the 2002 season for all MLB teams. Multiple regression analysis is performed using both promotion type and relevant timing variables to determine when promotions will be most successful at increasing attendance. Bobblehead giveaways and two combinations of promotions; a giveaway and special event or two special events, are found to have the greatest impact. Promotions during night games are also found to result in the greatest increase in attendance.
Boyd, T.C. and Krehbiel, T.C. (2006), "An Analysis of the Effects of Specific Promotion Types on Attendance at Major League Baseball Games", American Journal of Business, Vol. 21 No. 2, pp. 21-32. https://doi.org/10.1108/19355181200600007
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