Although the percentage of female entrepreneurs has increased over the past several years, it is far below the level of males. Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour and role congruity theory, the purpose of this paper is to specify a model in which the relationship between gender and entrepreneurial intention (EI) is mediated by three essential motivational constructs (i.e. attitude toward starting a business, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC)).
The study specifies and tests a meta‐analytical structural equation model. The study aggregates the results of 30 studies (n=52,367).
The study reveals a higher average EI for men compared to women. However, although significant, the gender differences in EI and the motivational constructs were small and cannot sufficiently explain the substantial differences in actually starting a business. Furthermore, moderator analyses show differences in the gender‐EI relationship between Europe and the US and between students and non‐students.
Differences between men and women seem to be a consequence of differences in turning intentions into implementation. Researchers are called upon to investigate gender differences in hindrances as a potential explanation for different implementations and when and why women give up their entrepreneurial plans. Moreover, future research should investigate further motivational processes beyond those suggested by the theory of planned behavior.
The study analyses the relationship between gender and EI and the results show a weak relationship which indicates that the higher number of male entrepreneurs cannot solely be explained by differences in motivation.
Haus, I., Steinmetz, H., Isidor, R. and Kabst, R. (2013), "Gender effects on entrepreneurial intention: a meta‐analytical structural equation model", International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 130-156. https://doi.org/10.1108/17566261311328828Download as .RIS
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