The work‐family interface has received considerable attention during the past two decades but inconsistent findings have been reported. Reasons for this include the use of different work‐family conflict (WFC) measures, samples, outcomes, and countries and cultures. Carlson et al. developed and provided an initial validation of a new comprehensive measure of bi‐directional WFC having three forms: time‐, strain‐, and behavior‐based conflict. The purpose of this paper is to replicate and extended their work employing a large sample of managers working in various organizations and industries in Egypt, a large Muslim country, and including additional correlates.
Data were collected from 242 respondents, 146 males and 96 females, using anonymously completed questionnaires, a 48 percent response rate. Measures included three forms of WFC, personal demographic and work situation characteristics, stable individual difference personality factors, job behaviors, work outcomes, after‐work recovery experiences, indicators of quality of life (e.g. WFC, life satisfaction) and psychological well‐being.
The three measures of WFC were acceptably reliable and inter‐correlated to the same extent as reported by Carlson and her colleagues in their US study. The mean values in the Egyptian sample were higher than those in the US study indicating more WFC, and the gender differences reported by Carlson et al. were not found in the Egyptian sample. Both stable personality characteristics (e.g. need for achievement) and job demands (e.g. perceptions of work intensity) were positively associated with WFC. Use of recovery experiences after work had limited and mixed effects on levels of WFC. WFC generally had negative relationships with work outcomes and indicators of psychological well‐being.
The presence of country differences suggests the need for more cross‐cultural research involving participants in the same occupations.
Results suggest that both individual characteristics and job demands are associated with levels of WFC. Efforts to reduce levels of WFC need to address both.
The paper adds to the understanding of work experiences of managers in Egypt and replicates and extends earlier work.
Burke, R. and El‐Kot, G. (2010), "Correlates of work‐family conflicts among managers in Egypt", International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 113-131. https://doi.org/10.1108/17538391011054363Download as .RIS
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