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Testing congruency effects between origin and producer for wines

Nathalie Spielmann (Reims Management School, Reims, France)
Barry Babin (Department of Marketing & Analysis, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana, USA)

International Journal of Wine Business Research

ISSN: 1751-1062

Article publication date: 8 November 2011




The purpose of this paper is to look at congruence effects between region and origin of producer on wine evaluations, and review if and how these two features are evaluated together, to determine authenticity, quality and price perceptions. Is a French wine better because it is made in France, because it is made by a Frenchman, or because a Frenchman made it in France?


A 2×2 factorial design was devised and 206 Americans were surveyed using empirical methods and online survey data.


The results show that region and producer are important considerations when consumers evaluate wine. Old world wines are perceived as more authentic regardless of who makes them, but it is also demonstrated that when origin features are incongruent, consumers associate similar quality to wines, but at different prices. Wine dogmatism is shown not to impact wine evaluations.

Practical implications

Marketing the origin of the winemaker rather than just the origin of the wine signals more information to consumers. Incongruence signals higher price points but congruency influences authenticity perceptions. Quality and price perceptions are not moderated by wine dogmatism.


Whereas previous research focused on general wine origin, this paper offers a relevant contribution to the place of origin literature in that it clarifies the relationship between the where and who for wines and how these two features together influence consumer perceptions. For the first time, the concept of wine dogmatism is discussed and a preliminary measurement of the trait is devised.



Spielmann, N. and Babin, B. (2011), "Testing congruency effects between origin and producer for wines", International Journal of Wine Business Research, Vol. 23 No. 4, pp. 338-354.



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Copyright © 2011, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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