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The V formation model: a unifying force for double bottom line ventures illustrated with European and North American examples

Kyleen K. Myrah (EdD, CMA, College Professor at the Okanagan School of Business, Okanagan College, Kelowna, Canada)
Tina L. Odinsky‐Zec (MSc and Doctoral Candidate at the Entrepreneurship and CRM Management Department, Zagreb School of Economics and Management, Zagreb, Croatia)

Social Responsibility Journal

ISSN: 1747-1117

Article publication date: 1 March 2013




Both social entrepreneurship (SE) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) are explored as parts of the contemporary movement toward sustainable business practices. In particular, this paper aims to address some of the confusion with the emerging field of SE through an exploration of theoretical models and practical applications across contexts.


This article reviews an array of research that has focused on defining a continuum of social mandate across the for‐profit to non‐profit arenas. It further experiments with plotting examples from North America (Canada) and Europe (Croatia) to test the models' practical value.


There are many gradations but the basic elements of intention and implementation along the lines of double (mission and money) and triple (people, planet, profit) bottom lines are converging. As the SE movement gains momentum across the world both experts and those new to the field are in search of a common tool to aid in consensus building and development across borders and sectors.

Research limitations/implications

The V formation model emphasizes the importance of the starting point of a social organization in terms of whether it is rooted in charitable or business practices, before allowing for a more nuanced understanding of the depth and intensity of its commitments to balance at the V‐Point of symmetry.


The authors present their own conceptual model with ten mini case studies presenting a diverse spectrum of SE activity that supports an inclusive rather than exclusive view of the present and future of both social entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility initiatives.



Myrah, K.K. and Odinsky‐Zec, T.L. (2013), "The V formation model: a unifying force for double bottom line ventures illustrated with European and North American examples", Social Responsibility Journal, Vol. 9 No. 1, pp. 91-108.



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