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Motivation, influences, and perceived effect of ICT adoption in Botswana organizations

Olukunle Iyanda (Department of Marketing, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana)
Sunday O. Ojo (Department of Computer Science, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana)

International Journal of Emerging Markets

ISSN: 1746-8809

Article publication date: 2 July 2008




The purpose of this paper is to examine the motivation, influences, and perceived effect of information and communication technology (ICT) adoption in Botswana organizations. While a conceptual model of the adoption process in developed countries has been studied, not much empirical studies have been undertaken. This paper is an attempt to bridge this gap. Specifically, the paper addresses five questions: What motivated organizations in Botswana in their decision to adopt ICT in their operations? What factors, internal and external, influenced the adoption decision? Which sources did the organizations contact for information on the adoption of ICT? What is the relative importance of those influencing/motivating factors and information sources? What are the perceived effects of adoption?


The study was carried out using a survey method. The main instrument is a personally administered questionnaire that was based on items obtained and adapted from literature. Data were collected from a judgment sample of 29 business and public sector establishments, drawn from nine towns and cities of Botswana. The respondent in each organization was either the IT manager or the chief executive. The initial stage of the adoption process is examined by identifying, in the sample Botswana organizations, the internal and external proponents of the ICT adoption process, the sources from which organizations seek technical information, their perceived relative importance in the process, and the effect of adoption on organizations' activities.


The study found that ICT application in Botswana was still at an elementary stage, mainly communications and recordkeeping. In terms of motivation and influence, the competitive motive and internal sources of information and influence were dominant and that the overall effect of ICT adoption on several organizational activities was moderately positive.


The identification of the key sources of influence and information for the adoption of ICT helps ICT marketing companies to target their marketing efforts more specifically, and services offered limited to basic needs that are relevant to the use to which ICT is currently applied in Botswana. Widespread adoption of ICT has turned it into a kind of “hygiene” factor rather than a “motivator”. In spite of the positive effect adoption has on various activities of adopting organizations, adoption benefits are matched by similar benefits of competing organizations, thus conferring no competitive advantages. It is only in the absence of adoption that those organizations adopting enjoy such competitive advantage.



Iyanda, O. and Ojo, S.O. (2008), "Motivation, influences, and perceived effect of ICT adoption in Botswana organizations", International Journal of Emerging Markets, Vol. 3 No. 3, pp. 311-322.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2008, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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