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Convergence of collaborative web approaches and interactive TV program formats

Sabine Bachmayer (Department of Telecooperation, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria)
Artur Lugmayr (Entertainment and Media Management EMMI Laboratory, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland)
Gabriele Kotsis (Department of Telecooperation, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria)

International Journal of Web Information Systems

ISSN: 1744-0084

Article publication date: 6 April 2010




TV changes in several disciplines concurrently: from analogue to digital, from scheduled broadcasts to on‐demand TV on the internet, from a lean‐back (passive) to a lean‐forward (active) media, from straight watching to the consumption of content connected to additional services, from the sole TV viewer to the viewer being part in social networks and communities regarding to the TV content, etc. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the adaptation of design and realization of TV program formats to the changes that happen to television. In addition, the paper would like find out how to support the design of interactions, dynamic narrations and content types as well as the role of the internet within these processes and this application area.


Currently, there exist many approaches towards the development of social, collaborative, and interactive TV program formats and systems. Within the scope of this paper, the authors present latest case studies and example program formats for each case. The paper examines them concerning their interaction possibilities and architecture as well as the influence and utilization of the web. Finally, the paper provides a simple categorization according to the narration character, content, and interactivity types of the listed TV program formats.


Caused by the collaborative and interactive characteristic of the web, a big influence of the web concerning the hardware‐ and content‐sided development of TV is discovered. Nevertheless, the web's potential is absolutely not exploited in this area, neither to give more dynamic to the narration, nor to appreciate the content type or the interactivity. Finally, the paper identifies a high effort, occurrence and development in the interactivity, in contrary to the narration characteristic and content types.

Research limitations/implications

Only one representative, example TV program format enabling interactions by the viewer for each case in the paper, has been chosen. The authors make no claim to be complete, in covering all genres, possibilities of interaction or TV program formats existing for the field of interactive/social/collaborative TV.


This paper presents an extension of a previous paper presented at the MoMM2009.



Bachmayer, S., Lugmayr, A. and Kotsis, G. (2010), "Convergence of collaborative web approaches and interactive TV program formats", International Journal of Web Information Systems, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 74-94.



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