Consistent with traditional internationalization theory, we argue that, when a firm chooses franchising to achieve market penetration, market propinquity/similarity matters. Using a modified gravity model, we examine six country characteristics believed to enhance the flow of franchise activity among 39 nations. Our findings support the notion that market propinquity facilitates the flow of franchises between nations. Franchise expansion is greatest when the home and host nations are similar in terms of geography, culture, media availability, and political risk. The management implications of these findings are discussed in detail.
Hoffman, R.C., Kincaid, J.F. and Preble, J.F. (2008), "International Franchise Expansion: Does Market Propinquity Matter?", Multinational Business Review, Vol. 16 No. 4, pp. 25-52. https://doi.org/10.1108/1525383X200800017
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