The possibility of recycling flue dust of the ferrochromium productions in Kazakhstan

Vladyslav Sokolov (Physico‐Technological Institute of Metals and Alloys of NASU, Kiev, Ukraine)
Ivan Imriš (Technical University of Košice, Košice, Slovakia)
Joanna Kulczycka (Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland)

Management of Environmental Quality

ISSN: 1477-7835

Publication date: 1 December 2005



This paper aims to describe a solution for cyclonic flue dust recycling based on the example of ferrochromium producers in Kazakhstan. It includes environmental improvement, which can be assessed in detail based on LCA after the development of a feasibility study of such a proposal.


Three pyrometallurgical recycling approaches should be achieved. The first approach is reduction smelting of fine waste in a direct current arc furnace without preliminary agglomeration. The second is reduction smelting of agglomerated waste in a submerged arc furnace, and the third is processing of agglomerated waste with liquid cast iron. The last approach facilitates the reactions of metal oxide reduction by carbon and silicon from the iron with a corresponding decrease in energy and auxiliary material consumption.


Valuable material can be produced from ferrochromium dust waste using environmentally friendly technology, including electric furnaces that can operate in SAF regimes and a simple plasma high‐power DC reactor operating under a neutral or reducing atmosphere. Finally, the investigation of waste recycling has developed a novel approach that facilitates metal oxide reduction and provides low energy and auxiliary materials consumption.

Practical implications

Research into the treatment of flue dust generated in the ferrochromium industry is needed to solve environmental problems not only in Kazakhstan but also in all ferrochromium plants in the world.


The three proposed pyrometallurgical recycling approaches should be achieved on a large scale.



Sokolov, V., Imriš, I. and Kulczycka, J. (2005), "The possibility of recycling flue dust of the ferrochromium productions in Kazakhstan", Management of Environmental Quality, Vol. 16 No. 6, pp. 647-655.

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