Intellectual capital and financial performance of Indian banks

Amitava Mondal (Department of Commerce, Kalna College – The University of Burdwan, Burdwan, India)
Santanu Kumar Ghosh (Department of Commerce, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan, India)

Journal of Intellectual Capital

ISSN: 1469-1930

Publication date: 19 October 2012



The purpose of this study is to investigate empirically the relationship between intellectual capital and financial performance of 65 Indian banks for a period of ten years from 1999 to 2008.


Reserve Bank of India's database and Annual reports, especially the profit and loss accounts and balance sheets of the banks for the relevant years have been used to obtain the data. Value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC™) method is applied for measuring the value based performance of banks. Return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) are used to measure the profitability and productivity of Indian banks, measured by assets turnover ratio (ATO). The intellectual capital (human capital and structural capital) and physical capital of selected banks have been analyzed and their impact on corporate performance has been measured using multiple regression technique.


The analysis indicates that the relationships between the performance of a bank's intellectual capital, and financial performance indicators, namely profitability and productivity, are varied. The study results suggest that banks’ intellectual capital is vital for their competitive advantage.

Research limitations/implications

The study uses only 65 leading Indian banks, including foreign banks operating in India. The value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC™), introduced by Pulic, is used in this study as a basic methodology to measure the IC performance of banks.

Practical implications

The VAIC™ method can be used as an important tool by the decision makers in the knowledge economy to integrate the intellectual capital in the decision making process.


This is one of the first empirical researches in India that examines the impact of IC on financial performance of the Indian banking sector in the long term.



Amitava Mondal and Santanu Kumar Ghosh (2012) "Intellectual capital and financial performance of Indian banks", Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 13 No. 4, pp. 515-530

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