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LibQUAL+TM in Iran: a subgroup analysis by gender

Nadjla Hariri (University of Applied Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran)
Farideh Afnani (University of Applied Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran)

Performance Measurement and Metrics

ISSN: 1467-8047

Article publication date: 4 July 2008




The purpose of this paper is to investigate the service quality of the central library of Iran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMS) from the viewpoints of female and male users of the library.


The study was done using a LibQUAL+™ survey, consisting of 22 core questions. The research sample included 361 users of the library and the results were interpreted on the basis of gap analysis. The mean values of gap scores for female and male users were compared statistically.


The mean score for the overall adequacy gap for women was 0.08 while this score for men was −0.08. The overall and dimensions superiority gap for both genders were negative. Statistical analysis did not show significant differences between mean values of gap scores for female and male users. The desired level of service quality, as in most LibQUAL+™ surveys in non‐Iranian libraries, was not met by this library.

Practical implications

The similarity in some results of LibQUAL+™ in different socio‐cultural contexts implies that perhaps customer expectations from library services are somehow global.


The paper shows that the translated version of LibQUAL+™ , can be reliably implemented in different countries. Furthermore, though LibQUAL+™ is a web‐based survey, in the case of the countries where ICT facilities are not still completely established, its printed version can reliably be utilized.



Hariri, N. and Afnani, F. (2008), "LibQUAL+TM in Iran: a subgroup analysis by gender", Performance Measurement and Metrics, Vol. 9 No. 2, pp. 80-93.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2008, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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