Completing the circuit in e‐government process automation

M.A. El‐Affendi (Department of Computer Science, Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

Business Process Management Journal

ISSN: 1463-7154

Publication date: 8 February 2008



The purpose of this paper is to provide a technique that helps in completing the automation cycle in e‐government and e‐business transactions. Some e‐government and e‐business transactions require the physical intervention of a user or an employee to place a physical stamp or a hand signature on a document. This paper suggests a digital watermarking approach for online hand signatures and physical stamps. The suggested technique may be used by individuals or organizations to place hand signatures and stamps on remote documents.


The work started by surveying existing security protocols and authentication techniques. Digital watermarking techniques have then been deeply studied to investigate their security capabilities and effect on the performance of the system. A scenario‐based approach has then been used to derive a number of secure digital watermarking protocols that may be used to place remote physical signatures and stamps. The derived protocols were then audited and tested.


It is possible to design and build simple light watermarking protocols for placing authentic hand signatures and stamps on remote documents (online). The process is secure and reliable.

Practical implications

The suggested technique will greatly improve and speed e‐government and e‐business transactions.


According to one's own knowledge and the surveys so far conducted, the suggested system is the first of its kind.



El‐Affendi, M. (2008), "Completing the circuit in e‐government process automation", Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 96-104.

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Copyright © 2008, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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