The purpose of this paper is to examine how spectrum policy can support the changing objectives of universal service in communications services.
The paper presents a review of current universal service obligations, analysis of how they will change, and identification of spectrum policy responses.
The study reveals that, in future, universal service will be delivered in a technologically neutral way; this will require a re‐appraisal of the way it is provided and the development of spectrum management techniques to ensure that it is provided efficiently.
The paper contains advice to European and other regulators about medium‐term universal service policy.
The paper explores the linkage between two previously separated areas of research.
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