In the 1990s, the Euro‐Nordic industry leaders in wireless communications enjoyed a period of explosive growth as the vision of the mobile Internet captured the market momentum. But the bursting of the Internet bubble, excessive 3G licence fees and the general industry downturn has dramatically affected Europe’s wireless future. This article examines the reasons for the success of Europe’s wireless communications in the 1990s, explains its vulnerabilities and draws lessons for the future.
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