Examines empowerment as an on‐going and perceptual organizational process yielding a new vision for subordinates. Claims that current attempts to empower employees have met with varying degrees of success as there is a significant gap between the perception of empowerment held by managers and the reality as viewed by employees. Suggests that current research depicts empowerment efforts as myths and not an effective intervention. Examines a five stage model with some empirical results. Explores the relationship of empowerment to organizational variables as well as relationships to supervisory style/managerial behaviors; reward systems; job design; individual and personality factors and finally structural power. Presents a special case study of empowerment in nursing as well as a case incident of empowerment practiced within a manufacturing firm. Concludes with strategies of how to build feelings of choice, competence, meaningfulness and progress ‐ all critical elements in the conceptual model of empowerment. Presents these strategies with both individual actions and team actions.
Appelbaum, S.H. and Honeggar, K. (1998), "Empowerment: a contrasting overview of organizations in general and nursing in particular ‐ an examination of organizational factors, managerial behaviors, job design, and structural power", Empowerment in Organizations, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 29-50. https://doi.org/10.1108/14634449810210715
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