Knowledge management (KM) is the subject of much literature, discussion, planning and some action. Effectively implementing a sound KM strategy and becoming a knowledge–based company is seen as a mandatory condition of success for organizations as they enter the era of the knowledge economy. Yet KM remains a broadly ill–defined term, with many, often disparate management theories, applications and technologies claiming a place under the KM banner. Read individually, the literature often presents a single view of what is a multifaceted topic. The KM spectrum has been developed to assist organizations in understanding the range of KM options, applications and technologies available to them. It provides a view of the totality and complexity of the various KM theories, tools and techniques presented in the literature. It provides a framework within which management can balance its KM focus and establish and communicate its strategic KM direction. This article introduces the KM spectrum as a synthesis of current KM theories, applications, tools and technologies described in the literature.
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