Organizations are systems, not just structures

Michael Ballé (Director, B&A Conseil, St Maxime Hauterive, France)

Career Development International

ISSN: 1362-0436

Publication date: 1 December 1996


Examines organizations as systems based on interdependence between people rather than structured parts. Goes on to explore organization processes, interfaces and variability as aspects of a dependence principle. Presents a short case study and concludes by arguing that we must stop thinking about organizations as structures and start looking at them as interrelated, self‐responsive, living systems.



Ballé, M. (1996), "Organizations are systems, not just structures", Career Development International, Vol. 1 No. 7, pp. 18-23.

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Copyright © 1996, MCB UP Limited

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