Within the emotional labor (EL) literature, the paper's aim is to test for additional scale distinctions in surface acting and deep acting, using a “difficult client” referent.
Working with existing definitions and operationalizations across prior EL studies, an on‐line sample of 1,975 massage therapists and bodywork practitioners (M&Bs) was used to test the hypotheses. Hinkin's recommended three steps for scale development: item development, scale development and scale evaluation were applied. The M&B sample was randomly split to carry out exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and then confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A smaller validation sample of 203 working adults was also tested using EFA.
Convergent support was found for EFA between the M&B and validation samples, as well as between EFA and CFA for the M&B sample. Two types of surface acting could be distinguished, basic surface acting (BSA) and challenged surface acting (CSA), while three types of deep acting could be distinguished, basic deep acting (BDA), perspective taking deep acting (PTDA) and positive refocus deep acting (PRDA).
This paper studies a unique sample, massage and body therapists, and the “difficult client” stimulus has not been formally tested in prior EL scale work.
Blau, G., Fertig, J., Surges Tatum, D., Connaughton, S., Soo Park, D. and Marshall, C. (2010), "Further scale refinement for emotional labor", Career Development International, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 188-216. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431011040969Download as .RIS
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