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Repatriation readjustment of international managers: An empirical analysis of HRD interventions

A Ahad M. Osman‐Gani (Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
Akmal S. Hyder (Department of Business Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden)

Career Development International

ISSN: 1362-0436

Article publication date: 1 August 2008




With increasing interest in overseas business expansion, particularly in the Asia‐Pacific region, expatriate management, including repatriation readjustmenst, has become a critical international human resource development (HRD) issue for multinational enterprises (MNEs). This empirical study therefore aims to investigate the use of HRD interventions relating to training and development for effective readjustment of international managers on repatriation.


The data were collected through a field survey conducted on repatriation experience of international managers from more than five countries, who are working in Singapore.


The study provides valuable insights about repatriation training programmes, training contents, programme duration, delivery modes, and providers of effective training programmes.

Research limitations/implications

HRD professionals and senior executives of MNEs will benefit from the findings of this study in making decisions on effective design and implementation of training and career development programmes.

Practical implications

The findings have significant implications for career development of managers involved in international business operations.


This paper discusses readjustment problems of the repatriating managers and suggests how realistic HRD programmes, mainly based on training, can be developed and implemented for retaining international managers. These findings from the dynamic region of Asia will also help in developing appropriate career development programmes.



Ahad M. Osman‐Gani, A. and Hyder, A.S. (2008), "Repatriation readjustment of international managers: An empirical analysis of HRD interventions", Career Development International, Vol. 13 No. 5, pp. 456-475.



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Copyright © 2008, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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