Age, gender and national factors in fashion consumption

Maria Alice V. Rocha (Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil Kent Institute of Art & Design, Rochester, UK)
Lynne Hammond (School of Fashion, Kent Institute of Art & Design, Rochester, UK)
David Hawkins (School of Design, Kent Institute of Art & Design, Rochester, UK)

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management

ISSN: 1361-2026

Publication date: 1 December 2005



The research aimed to reveal real behavioural preferences in fashion and clothing consumption, and analyses the similarities and differences between British, Brazilian and Chinese consumers. This approach was selected to consider the distinctions between a mature market, and emerging western and eastern markets.


The investigation was based around a research methodology using quantitative analysis with appropriate statistical techniques on three random surveys of consumers from the southeast of England (N=265), the northeast of Brazil (N=310) and mainland China (N=226) older than 15 years.


A new conceptual framework is proposed – the physical, identity and lifestyle (PIL) model, providing a tool for effective and more focused decision‐making techniques for developing better fashion products. British, Brazilian and Chinese consumers have different requirements for fashion and clothing products based upon age and gender. The evidence suggests that the fashion industry needs to be more aware of consumer indicators when targeting mature consumers.

Research limitations/implications

The research was based on samples and not the entire population of target consumers, providing limitations. As an inferential statistical method was chosen, the results were susceptible to inaccuracy.


The survey came from three different continents, thereby providing rich perspectives into global consumption. Companies who own domestic market share and want to enter new global markets could use this data to improve their product design development decisions.



Rocha, M., Hammond, L. and Hawkins, D. (2005), "Age, gender and national factors in fashion consumption", Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Vol. 9 No. 4, pp. 380-390.

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Copyright © 2005, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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