Aligning anti‐money laundering, combating of financing of terror and financial inclusion

Louis de Koker (Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Australia)

Journal of Financial Crime

ISSN: 1359-0790

Publication date: 11 October 2011



The purpose of this paper is to identify key questions that should be addressed to enable the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) to provide guidance regarding the alignment of anti‐money laundering, combating of financing of terror and financial inclusion objectives.


The paper draws on relevant research and documents of the FATF to identify questions that are relevant to consider when it formulates guidance regarding the alignment between financial integrity and financial inclusion objectives.


The FATF advises that its risk‐based approach enables countries and institutions to further financial inclusion. It is, however, not clear what the FATF means when its uses the terms “risk” and “low risk”. It is also unclear whether current proposals for financial inclusion regulatory models will necessarily limit money laundering as well as terror financing risks to levels that can be described as “low”. The FATF will need to clarify its own thinking regarding low money laundering and low terror financing risk before it will be able to provide clear guidance to national regulators and financial institutions.


This paper was drafted to inform current FATF discussions regarding guidance on financial inclusion. The questions are relevant to all stakeholders in financial regulation.



de Koker, L. (2011), "Aligning anti‐money laundering, combating of financing of terror and financial inclusion", Journal of Financial Crime, Vol. 18 No. 4, pp. 361-386.

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Copyright © 2011, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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