Examines Secretary of War Elihu Root’s 1903 reorganization of the US Army. Prior to Root, the Army suffered major organizational problems, including no central authority and an ambiguous chain‐of‐command. Post‐Civil War antimilitary sentiment had left the Army poorly funded, undermanned and barely capable of waging war on the Indians. In 1898, the ineptly fought Spanish‐American War highlighted Army deficiencies. Root’s modernization created the Chief of Staff, a senior general who reported to the Secretary of War, controlled the previously independent bureaus, prepared war plans and coordinated military activities with the Navy. Root also increased Army manpower and funding, reformed state militia into what is now the National Guard, and overhauled military training. Root laid the foundation for the complex defense management of the present day. His doctrine of civilian supremacy and concept of clear command relationships are as sound now as in 1903.
White, R.D. (1998), "Civilian management of the military: Elihu Root and the 1903 reorganization of the army general staff ", Journal of Management History (Archive), Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 43-59. https://doi.org/10.1108/13552529810369614
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