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Cultural classifications of societies and how they affect cross‐cultural management

Carl A. Rodrigues (Professor of Management, Department of Management, School of Business, Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, NJ 07043, USA)

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal

ISSN: 1352-7606

Article publication date: 1 September 1998


Describes cultural classifications of societies, based on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, to form a basis of managerial styles which expatriate managers, in particular, can use as a reference tool. Goes into more detail about: power distance, collectivism/individualism, strong/weak uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, Confucian dynamism, master of destiny/fatalistic, improvement/maintenance of status quo, enterprise, personnel selection, attitudes towards wealth, sharing in decision making, objective/emotional analysis, and high/low context cultures. Relates this to cross‐cultural management styles, but points out some problems, not least multiple classifications of cultures. Suggests that this article should be used as a starting point, rather than an ultimate cultural guide to conducting business globally.



Rodrigues, C.A. (1998), "Cultural classifications of societies and how they affect cross‐cultural management", Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, Vol. 5 No. 3, pp. 31-41.




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