To read the full version of this content please select one of the options below:

Cross‐cultural negotiations revisited: Are Asian generations X and Y members negotiating like their elders?

Michael Vieregge (IMI University Centre, Luzern, Switzerland)
Simon Quick (Third Person Consulting, Cham, Switzerland)

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal

ISSN: 1352-7606

Article publication date: 2 August 2011




The purpose of this paper is to explore possible changes in national culture for generations X and Y members from selected Asian national cultures and the impact on cross‐cultural negotiations.


An interpretivist epistemology is combined with an ontology of subjectivism for this exploratory study which does not seek generalization. Emphasis is placed on the development of new survey items by members of generations X and Y for Hofstede's dimensions. An online survey yielded n=224 responses. Data were collected from members of generations X and Y, but also Baby Boomers as the control group, to test differences.


For national culture dimensions, only individualism/collectivism tests for significant differences between Asian GenY and Baby Boomers. GenX and GenY show little interest in pre‐opening relationship building and focus on positioning and compromising.

Research limitations/implications

The study is exploratory in nature and future studies should revisit this topic. The items developed to measure national culture might be biased by the 39 focus group participants. Future studies should consider differentiating Asian groups.

Practical implications

Western negotiators need to prepare for multiple scenarios when entering negotiations with Asian partners. Depending on the age of the Asian negotiator, emphasis on different phases of the negotiation process needs to be reevaluated.


This research holds immediate lessons for cross‐cultural negotiations. Results support that generations X and Y members in some Asian cultures do not differ from their elders across all Hofstede dimensions, however they display different negotiation behaviors.



Vieregge, M. and Quick, S. (2011), "Cross‐cultural negotiations revisited: Are Asian generations X and Y members negotiating like their elders?", Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 313-326.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2011, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Related articles