In 1980 at the Ford Motor Company, quality wasn’t job one; survival was. Buffeted by stagnant product lines, hidebound management practices and nimbler Japanese competitors, the once‐dominant car maker was on its way to losing $1.6 billion – its first loss since going public. Ford cars were too often poorly built and out of step with the marketplace. The problem: a fragmented organizational structure that made producing new models a frustratingly slow, cumbersome and inefficient process.
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