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Alternative measures of satisfaction in cross‐cultural settings

Robert H. Ross (Department of Marketing and Entrepreneurship, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas, USA)
S. Allen Broyles (Department of Marketing, California State University, Fullerton, California, USA)
Thaweephan Leingpibul (Haworth College of Business, Schneider Hall, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA)

Journal of Product & Brand Management

ISSN: 1061-0421

Article publication date: 18 April 2008




This paper seeks to develop and test a model that enables examination of the cross‐cultural comparative influence of the meets expectations versus feeling state perspectives of consumer satisfaction for a product or brand.


New measures were developed for the meets expectations and feeling state constructs, leading to a survey that was administered to Chinese and Americans. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling in order to test hypotheses that were developed from the extant literature.


The study found that meets expectations and feeling state are two distinct separate constructs with Americans and Chinese, and that their influence on future purchase intent differs between cultures, and between brands.

Research limitations/implications

Only two brands were used in the study. The survey was completed with university students in the USA and China versus a broader range of age groups. The dissimilar nuances of English and Chinese may lead to different understandings of the measurement items.

Practical implications

This study provides a foundation for future cross‐cultural consumer research, and provides empirical insights into the ongoing standardization versus localization marketing strategy debate.


This study is a benchmark comparative cross‐cultural consumer satisfaction study with vastly disparate American and Chinese consumers.



Ross, R.H., Allen Broyles, S. and Leingpibul, T. (2008), "Alternative measures of satisfaction in cross‐cultural settings", Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 82-91.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2008, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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