An empirical analysis of the brand personality effect

Traci H. Freling (Gatton College of Business and Economics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA)
Lukas P. Forbes (Ford College of Business, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA)

Journal of Product & Brand Management

ISSN: 1061-0421

Publication date: 1 December 2005



Seeks to provide empirical support for the “brand personality effect”, that is, the direct influence that brand personality will have on a variety of consumer‐driven outcomes.


Tests a series of hypotheses using experimental research design with 192 subjects.


Support is found for all proposed hypotheses. These findings indicate that brand personality will have a positive influence on product evaluations and that subjects exposed to a brand's personality will have a significantly greater number of brand associations; significantly greater proportion of brand associations; significantly greater unique brand associations; significantly greater proportion of congruent brand associations; and significantly greater proportion of strong brand associations.

Practical implications

This paper conceptually establishes brand personality and empirically demonstrates the brand personality effect on consumer‐based outcomes. This finding strengthens the brand personality literature and establishes a baseline study for future empirical research.


Brand personality has received levels of research from academics and practitioners alike, but this research presents the first empirical test of the direct effect of brand personality and how it drives consumer behavior.



Freling, T. and Forbes, L. (2005), "An empirical analysis of the brand personality effect", Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 14 No. 7, pp. 404-413.

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Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2005, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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