Miller's environmental uncertainty scale: an extension to the Arab world

Said Elbanna (Faculty of Business and Economics, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates)
Jouhaina Gherib (Higher School of Accounting and Management (ISCAE), ISCAE‐University of Manouba, Manouba, Tunisia)

International Journal of Commerce and Management

ISSN: 1056-9219

Publication date: 9 March 2012



The purpose of this paper is to employ a mixed methods design to assess the applicability, reliability and validity of Miller's scale of environmental uncertainty.


Using 759 questionnaires and eight personal interviews from three countries throughout four phases of scale assessment, the authors re‐operationalized Miller's scale to be more applicable to Arab countries. Phase 1 refines the scale with reference to the new context in which the authors applied it. Phase 2 eliminates poor performing items, using exploratory factor analysis. Phase 3 examines the generalizability of the modified scale in the Arab world. Finally, Phase 4 assesses the criterion‐related validity of the scale.


The authors' assessment of Miller's scale suggests that several changes in the scale are necessary to be more applicable in Arab countries. The results of the combined sample are consistent with the hypothetical structure of constructs and have four factors: product, competition, government and policies, and economy.


This study paid attention to the conceptualization and operationalization of strategic management research variables. Moreover, examining the Miller's scale in the Arab region could enhance the generalizability of this scale. Finally, the authors' longitudinal research, with its four samples, is another contribution.



Elbanna, S. and Gherib, J. (2012), "Miller's environmental uncertainty scale: an extension to the Arab world", International Journal of Commerce and Management, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 7-25.

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Copyright © 2012, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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