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Measuring national culture: does gender matter?

Yvonne E. Stedham (Department of Managerial Sciences)
Jeanne H. Yamamura (Department of Accounting and IS, at the University of Nevada Reno, Reno, Nevada, USA)

Women in Management Review

ISSN: 0964-9425

Article publication date: 1 July 2004



Understanding cultural differences is critical to international business success. Hofstede's (1980) model of national culture is widely used to identify such differences. The cultural dimensions identified in Hofstede's model, however, are not gender‐specific, with one exception, masculinity/femininity. Hofstede's data were gathered in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Considerable change has taken place since that time, particularly in the areas of education, legislation, and workforce composition. It is proposed that these changes, among others, may have resulted in gender differences in dimensions of national culture. This study provides an exploratory examination of gender differences in cultural characteristics in two industrialised countries with distinctly different cultures, Japan and the USA. Results indicate that gender differences exist in the power distance dimension for Japan and in the individualism/collectivism dimension for Japan and the USA. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.



Stedham, Y.E. and Yamamura, J.H. (2004), "Measuring national culture: does gender matter?", Women in Management Review, Vol. 19 No. 5, pp. 233-243.



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Copyright © 2004, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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