The purpose of this paper is to numerically study blood flow through a subject‐specific carotid artery with a moderately severe stenosis, also to thoroughly analyse the wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and WSS angular deviation (WSSAD). One of the important aspects of this study is the investigation on the influence of the extensions attached to the domain outlets.
The segmentation of the carotid artery is carried out using a deformable model based on a level set method. A geometric potential force (GPF) is employed to deform the level set to obtain the carotid artery geometry. The initial surface meshing is generated using an advanced marching cubes (MC) method, before improving the quality of the surface mesh via a number of mesh cosmetic steps. The volume mesh generation has two parts. In the first part, a quasi‐structured, boundary layer mesh is generated in the vicinity of the geometry walls. The second part of the meshing involves unstructured tetrahedral meshing of the inner part of the geometry. After the meshing stage, the flow boundary conditions are generated by numerically solving the Helmholtz equation in both space and time. Finally, the explicit characteristic‐based split (CBS) method is employed in a parallel environment to produce a detailed analysis of wall quantities.
In general, WSS is very high in the vicinity of the carotid artery apex and in the proximity of the stenosis. From the results obtained, it is clear that the influence of outlet domain extension is marginal. While the peak instantaneous WSS differs by a maximum of 5.7 per cent, the time‐averaged WSS difference due to extended domain is only 1.3 per cent. Two other derived parameters are also examined in the paper, the oscillating shear index and the WSSAD. Both these quantities also display minor or negligible differences due to domain extension.
It has been perceived that domain extension is essential to avoid wrong application of boundary conditions. The results obtained, however, conclusively show that the outlet domain extension has only a moderate influence on WSS. Thus, outlet extension to the domains may not be essential for arterial blood flows. It is also observed that the dramatic values of peak WSS obtained near the stenosis is the result of high resolution mesh along with boundary layers used in this study. Both the outcomes represent the originality of this paper.
Bevan, R., Nithiarasu, P., Sazonov, I., van Loon, R., Luckraz, H., Collins, M. and Garnham, A. (2011), "Influences of domain extensions to a moderately stenosed patient‐specific carotid bifurcation: Investigation of wall quantities", International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol. 21 No. 8, pp. 952-979. https://doi.org/10.1108/09615531111177741
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