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Entropy generation analysis for the free surface turbulent flow during laser material processing

Dipankar Chatterjee (Department of Mechanical & Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, India)
Suman Chakraborty (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India)

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow

ISSN: 0961-5539

Article publication date: 15 May 2009



The purpose of this paper is to carry out a systematic energy analysis for predicting the first and second law efficiencies and the entropy generation during a laser surface alloying (LSA) process.


A three‐dimensional transient macroscopic numerical model is developed to describe the turbulent transport phenomena during a typical LSA process and subsequently, the energy analysis is carried out to predict the entropy generation as well as the first and second law efficiencies. A modified k–ε model is used to address turbulent molten metal‐pool convection. The phase change aspects are addressed using a modified enthalpy‐porosity technique. A kinetic theory approach is adopted for modelling evaporation from the top surface of the molten pool.


It is found that the heat transfer due to the strong temperature gradient is mainly responsible for the irreversible degradation of energy in the form of entropy production and the flow and mass transfer effects are less important for this type of phase change problem. The first and second law efficiencies are found to increase with effective heat input and remain independent of the powder feed rate. With the scanning speed, the first law efficiency increases whereas the second law efficiency decreases.

Research limitations/implications

The top surface undulations are not taken care of in this model which is a reasonable approximation.

Practical implications

The results obtained will eventually lead to an optimized estimation of laser parameters (such as laser power, scanning speed, etc.), which in turn improves the process control and reduces the cost substantially.


This paper provides essential information for modelling solid–liquid phase transition as well as a systematic analysis for entropy generation prediction.



Chatterjee, D. and Chakraborty, S. (2009), "Entropy generation analysis for the free surface turbulent flow during laser material processing", International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol. 19 No. 3/4, pp. 303-328.



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