Two‐dimensional numerical simulations have been performed using a finite volume method that employs unstructured grids with cell‐wise local refinement and an interface‐capturing scheme to predict the shape of the free surface, thus simulating the surface wave that is created in a mold due to the flow from the submerged entry nozzle (SEN). Simulation has been done for 1:6.25 aspect ratio of the mold having a height of 2 m with parallel rectangular ports as well as 15° upward and downward ports. It has been found that for low inlet velocity of the SEN (<1 m/s) the maximum wave amplitude of the surface remains below 12 mm and no outside air is entrapped by the wave to form a bubble. However, for high inlet velocity (2 m/s or more) there is considerable fluctuations on the free surface and the maximum wave amplitude shoot up beyond 70 mm at the start up and slowly falls to about 30 mm entrapping air bubbles from the surroundings. The movement of the air bubble within the mold and its rise to the free surface where it subsequently collapses has been captured well in the numerical simulation. The overall shape of the free surface matches well, excepting the initial transience, with that of the experimentally observed free surface, although the free surface never attains a perfect steady shape neither in the experiment nor in the numerical simulation due to its continuous oscillation and breaking.
Dash, S.K., Sunder Mondal, S. and Ajmani, S.K. (2004), "Mathematical simulation of surface wave created in a mold due to submerged entry nozzle", International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol. 14 No. 5, pp. 606-632. https://doi.org/10.1108/09615530410539946
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