Retailers, it is said, are behaving as brands. Tests whether retailers can be considered to be brands by comparing the current practices of British retailers against four criteria for a brand which are developed from the existing literature on branding. The four criteria are that the brand should: differentiate; be capable of a separate existence; command a premium price and; offer the customer some psychic value. Concludes that retail brands not only exist but also exist in two forms: the more obvious merchandise brands, commonly known as own‐brand that are now marketed as more than generic commodities; and the less obvious process brand that represents the experience that retailers provide. Argues that the process brand is purchased with the shoppers′ time rather than with their money. The process brand has value to the retailer as it generates customer flow, customer loyalty and higher expenditure.
Davies, G. (1992), "THE TWO WAYS IN WHICH RETAILERS CAN BE BRANDS", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 20 No. 2. https://doi.org/10.1108/09590559210009312
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