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Measuring service quality in retail loyalty programmes (LPSQual): Implications for retailers' retention strategies

Nor Asiah Omar (School of Management, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (National University of Malaysia), Bangi, Malaysia)
Rosidah Musa (Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Malaysia)

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management

ISSN: 0959-0552

Article publication date: 6 September 2011




This research aims to empirically develop a reliable and valid scale for measuring the service quality of retail loyalty programmes (loyalty programme service quality (LPSQual)) in the context of department stores and superstores in Malaysia.


By adapting the process proposed by Churchill for developing measures of marketing constructs, an instrument to assess LPSQual in Malaysia is formulated. The methodology consists of developing the scale based on a literature review and qualitative method. The proposed scale is then purified and validated through exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.


The proposed instrument (LPSQual) contains 26 attributes in seven dimensions: reward, tangibility, policy, information usefulness, courteousness/helpfulness, personalization and communication.

Research limitations/implications

Further testing of the scales across multiple contexts is necessary for validity enhancement.

Practical implications

Retail managers must give serious thought to the non‐material or “soft‐benefits” component in a loyalty programme which emphasizes courteous/helpful and personalized services. Thus, managers need to focus on service personnel by providing training to upgrade employees' skills in creating and delivering pleasant experience/service encounters to cardholders.


The main contribution of this paper is the development and validation of a new scale called LPSQual, which focuses on service quality in a loyalty programme. On the one hand, it is a pioneer in the study of service quality in loyalty programmes and, on the other hand, it confirms results from other researches on non‐material strategies that can be used in loyalty programmes.



Asiah Omar, N. and Musa, R. (2011), "Measuring service quality in retail loyalty programmes (LPSQual): Implications for retailers' retention strategies", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 39 No. 10, pp. 759-784.



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Copyright © 2011, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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