Within the analytical framework proposed by Margaret Archer, this paper charts the emergence and development of education systems during the twentieth century in Hong Kong and Macau. Although these two territories have much in common, in education they display considerable differences. During the twentieth century the Hong Kong authorities constructed a highly centralized system, which at the end of the century moved towards decentralization. In Macau, by contrast, government neglect led to an uncoordinated collection of imported systems. At the end of the century the Macau government endeavored to unify the sector, but faced major challenges and limitations.
Tang, K. and Bray, M. (2000), "Colonial models and the evolution of education systems ‐ Centralization and decentralization in Hong Kong and Macau", Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 38 No. 5, pp. 468-485. https://doi.org/10.1108/09578230010378368Download as .RIS
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