Shippers are seeking international gateways that can provide them with services consistent with “seamless logistics”. This places pressures on public and private organizations, such as customs and freight forwarders, to adopt competitive technologies and systems. Electronic data interchange and integrated logistics management practices enable significant improvements in border procedures. A comparison of developments in four countries reveals that strategic changes by customs will enable more efficient logistics services. However, customs and forwarders in the countries are progressing at different rates.
Heaver, T.D. (1992), "The Role of Customs Administration in the Structure and Efficiency of International Logistics: An International Comparison", The International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 63-72. https://doi.org/10.1108/09574099210804813
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