Urban tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations can reach 40 folds its background level due to traffic‐induced emissions and extensive industrial activities. As such, O3 has become a pervasive air pollution problem in urban areas despite major efforts to control its precursors. In this paper, O3 formation mechanisms are briefly described, countrywide emissions with emphasis on O3 precursors are summarized, and field measurements of O3 background levels and its precursors in an urban area are presented. Simulation results using a photochemical air quality model including a sensitivity analysis with respect to design ratios and mixing heights are then presented. Mitigation alternatives and policies to control O3 formation are examined in the context of country‐specific characteristics.
El‐Fadel, M., Zein, M., Nuwayhid, I., Jamali, D. and Sadek, S. (2002), "Environmental management of ozone in Beirut urban areas", Environmental Management and Health, Vol. 13 No. 5, pp. 471-494. https://doi.org/10.1108/09566160210441780Download as .RIS
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