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The role of business schools in the doctoral paradox

Ricardo Madureira (INESC Porto, Innovation and Technology Transfer Unit, Porto, Portugal International Marketing Department, Vaasa University, Vaasa, Finland)

European Business Review

ISSN: 0955-534X

Article publication date: 7 March 2008




To develop an analytical tool that captures the linkages between academic and business innovation. To assess dominant notions of information society, doctoral education and business school as well as their influence on current European focus in terms of R&D policy.


Integration of findings from various streams of research with those of recent European reports. Illustration of R&D policy dilemmas with the case of management development.


Provides an analytical tool which details academic and business innovation activities – the innovation value‐added cycle model. Identifies apparent biases in empirical reports by which R&D incentives may produce other than their intended outcomes (the doctoral paradox).

Research limitations/implications

The empirical reports are exclusively European and qualitative. The findings are illustrated with the case of management development only.

Practical implications

The analytical tool may support the strategic participation of individuals (researchers and entrepreneurs) as well as communities (universities and locations) in the international innovation division of labour. The three decisional dilemmas in terms of R&D incentives may support decision making of supra‐national, national and local authorities as well as business schools.


The paper details the linkages by which academic and business value‐added activities are acknowledged. In addition, it raises awareness on the potential bias of policy‐makers towards positivist knowledge, entrepreneurial researchers and entrepreneurial universities to the detriment of post‐positivist knowledge, researching entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial locations, respectively.



Madureira, R. (2008), "The role of business schools in the doctoral paradox", European Business Review, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 98-111.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2008, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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