Parallel with increasing awareness of importance in learning during the last few decades, numerous theorists from various disciplines have tried to shape ideas concerning learning seen from their perspectives. One negative consequence of these efforts has been observed as increased confusion and disputes among the theorists as well as practitioners due to “lacking of common ground” in their search on learning. Hence, the aim of this paper is to explore some critical aspects of learning, among others, root thinking, meaning of learning, nature, processes and outcomes of learning in order to identify possible common ground(s) in between various schools of thought.
Through a literature survey the characteristics of learning in terms of the processes, the nature and the outcomes of learning are investigated. Besides the chosen contemporary literature on learning, ideas and philosophies of John Dewey (1859‐1952) and Confucius (551‐479, BC) have been explored in order to identify possible root thinking in the West and in the East.
It is found that not much new knowledge has been accumulated since Confucius and despite multiple schools of thought in current research, the majority of western theorists base their ideas on Dewey's thinking. The meta learning wheel has been suggested to be a common ground for learning.
The originalities of this paper are: both contemporary as well as classic literatures in learning are investigated; both Western and Eastern literatures are investigated.
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