Solder materials are used to provide a connection between electronic components and printed circuit boards (PCBs) using either the reflow or wave soldering process. As a board assembly passes through a reflow furnace the solder (initially in the form of solder paste) melts, reflows, then solidifies, and finally deforms between the chip and board. A number of defects may occur during this process such as flux entrapment, void formation, and cracking of the joint, chip or board. These defects are a serious concern to industry, especially with trends towards increasing component miniaturisation and smaller pitch sizes. This paper presents a modelling methodology for predicting solder joint shape, solidification, and deformation (stress) during the assembly process.
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