Investigation of Sn‐Zn‐Bi solders – Part I: surface tension, interfacial tension and density measurements of SnZn7Bi solders

K. Bukat (Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland)
Z. Moser (Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland)
J. Sitek (Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland)
W. Gąsior (Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland)
M. Kościelski (Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland)
J. Pstruś (Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland)

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology

ISSN: 0954-0911

Publication date: 29 June 2010

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of Part I of this paper is to investigate the influence of Bi additions on the surface tension, the interfacial tension, and the density of SnZn7Bi alloys (Bi=1 and 3 percent by mass) as a continuation of similar previous studies on Bi and Sb additions to the binary Sn‐Zn alloy. The main aim of Part I is to indicate that the lowering of the surface tension and interfacial tension is not sufficient for practical applications. However, knowledge of the interfacial tension between the soldering flux and the solder is necessary to convert the wetting force into the contact angle. This will be documented in Part II.

Design/methodology/approach

The maximum bubble method was applied for the surface tension and the Miyazaki method was applied for the surface tension and the interfacial tension, using the density values from the dilatometric technique. The experimental surface tension results are compared with the Butler's thermodynamic modeling results and are discussed by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Findings

On the basis of previous studies on Sn‐Zn‐Bi‐Sb alloys, the addition of Bi to SnZn7 slightly decreased the surface tension measured in an Ar+H2 atmosphere, similarly to the Butler's modeling results. Also, a similar slight decrease of the surface tension from the Miyazaki method measured in air and in nitrogen was observed, as well as a more significant lowering of the interfacial tension with the use of a flux in nitrogen. There was also a slight influence of the temperature on the numerical values of the surface tensions and the interfacial tension. In the ANOVA, taking into account the Bi content, the temperature of measurements, the atmosphere and the flux, the flux used was shown as the most important, and also, to a lesser extent, the atmosphere.

Research limitations/implications

It is intended (the purpose of Part II of this paper) to verify the positive influence of Bi additions in SnZn7 alloys on the surface tensions and the interfacial tensions via the contact angles from the interaction with Cu on printed circuit board with different lead‐free finishes.

Practical implications

It is suggested that further studies on more efficient fluxes are necessary for the practical application being in agreement with the ANOVA and the literature information.

Originality/value

A slight improvement of the wettability with the use of Bi additions in the SnZn7Bi alloys in the course of various experimental techniques is proven, similar to results reported in various references. The obtained results will enlarge the SURDAT database of lead‐free soldering materials.

Keywords

Citation

Bukat, K., Moser, Z., Sitek, J., Gąsior, W., Kościelski, M. and Pstruś, J. (2010), "Investigation of Sn‐Zn‐Bi solders – Part I: surface tension, interfacial tension and density measurements of SnZn7Bi solders", Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp. 10-16. https://doi.org/10.1108/09540911011054145

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Publisher

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Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2010, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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