The contributions to critical accounting theory in Japan made by prominent academics in the 1930s and 1940s are examined. The characteristics of the archetype of critical accounting theory as they were seen in that period are discussed, in particular the development of the “capital circulation” approach. These characteristics are seen to have been very significant for the methodology of accounting theory in Japan. This methodology regards the mode of accounting as an organ that moves according to the unity of opposites, which are the reflections of the contradictions within capital. This methodology provides keys for recognising and analysing various aspects, developments and conflicts within accounting, ranging from the concealment of profit by firms to the flexibility of accounting standards.
Tanaka, A. (1990), "A History of the Early Japanese Theorists’ Development of the “Capital Circulation” Approach", Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, Vol. 3 No. 2. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513579010000091
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