Purpose – This paper aims to analyze the nature, mechanisms, conventional and modern instruments, dynamics, and the future possibilities of the contemporary phenomenon of financial globalization from the point of view of identifying and addressing the corresponding real politico‐economic challenges confronted by the contemporary Islamic world. In this context, the paper focuses on the institutional responses of the contemporary Islamic world to the challenges of financial globalization. Design/methodology/approach – The approach of the paper is to develop a theoretical treatise on its subject, in the light of research work of Ali Khan who points to the imperative of an Islamic institutional response to financial globalization, by treating the institution of Islamic banking as the concrete proxy of the Islamic financial institution, and to highlight the actual and prospective responses of the Islamic financial institutions to the challenges of financial globalization. Findings – Financial globalization is an evolving reality. Because of its atheistic, materialistic, undemocratic, non‐universal and interest‐based world view and character, financial globalization has been posing a serious challenge to the contemporary Islamic countries’ agenda of economically empowering and developing themselves through the integration of their economies along the universal Islamic lines exhibited in the form of one Islamic Ummah. Research limitations/implications – Research limitations are embodied in the overwhelming problem of finding the latest comprehensive set of data in the context of the relevant Islamic economic variables. Practical implications – The interest‐based Bretton Woods institutions and the conventional‐cum‐new instruments as well as the interest‐based mechanism of financial globalization are determined to be Islamically useless and irrelevant for the Islamic countries. Therefore, the Islamic countries are left with only the financial instruments of Islamic interest‐free foreign direct investment/workers’ remittances/equities along with the several additional Islamic instruments of financial globalization which have the potential of ensuring the Islamic countries’ development according to the Islamic ideals without compromising the sovereignty and integrity of the Islamic Ummah. Originality/value – The paper presents an objective Islamic critique of the capitalist financial globalizations as well as documenting a progressive institutional‐cum‐development policy response to the challenges of financial globalization from the point of view of ensuring the development and empowerment of both the Islamic Ummah and the whole of humanity in the Islamic universal frameworks.
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