The characteristics which differentiate transactional from transformational leadership are discussed, highlighting the differences between managers and leaders. Four distinct characteristics – the Fours I′s – associated with transformational leadership are described with respect to their evolution and influence on follower development, effort and performance. The advantages of combining transactional and transformational leadership styles into an overall framework of leadership development for leading in the 1990s are also discussed.
Avolio, B.J., Waldman, D.A. and Yammarino, F.J. (1991), "Leading in the 1990s: The Four I′s of Transformational Leadership", Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 15 No. 4. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090599110143366
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