Explores the question of whether protectionist policies must always violate someone’s rights, or whether it is possible to have a protectionist policy that does not violate rights. Discusses the weaknesses of a utilitarian approach to trade theory, then goes on to examine the major forms of protectionism, including tariffs, quotas, anti‐dumping laws, and the deliberate manipulation of exchange rates. Discusses rights and makes a distinction between positive and negative rights. Applies rights theory to trade policy and concludes that protectionism necessarily violates someone’s rights to property, contract or association ‐ unless it is done on a voluntary basis.
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