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CO2 emissions and GDP

Jan‐Erik Lane (University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany)

International Journal of Social Economics

ISSN: 0306-8293

Article publication date: 27 September 2011




The purpose of this paper is to show how CO2 equivalent emissions are closely linked with economic development, over time and also across countries.


Emissions data from energy information administration were subjected to macro analysis, regressed upon GDP data, longitudinally and cross‐sectionally.


The conversion factor linking energy to output to pollution is estimated over time and between economies. It is today far too high, making global climate change almost certain.

Practical implications

Global environmental coordination is very difficult to achieve, given the nature of this gigantic PD game in combination with weak institutions for policy making and implementation. The only way to stabilise CO2 emissions is to focus upon the conversion factor linking energy to output to pollution.


The paper shows the clear and Juggernaut type connections between energy‐economic output‐CO2 emissions.



Lane, J. (2011), "CO2 emissions and GDP", International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 38 No. 11, pp. 911-918.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2011, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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