States that a more humane society is the ultimate goal of modern society, along with economy and form of government. Posits that in this study the theory of cheating the masses under capitalism and socialism‐communism, is valid ipso facto under fascism and any form of dictatorship. Looks at the problem of methodology and history and discusses: the use of deception; accumulation of illegitimate power; and the spreading of instability, and the exploitation of the masses. Concludes that the great transformation in the West and the East may develop of its own accord, but not necessarily without help, for the betterment of mankind unless pointed in the right direction.
Rugina, A.N. (2000), "The theory of the cheating of the masses in modern times: the institutional roots of social immorality under capitalism, socialism‐communism and fascism", International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 27 No. 5/6, pp. 603-646. https://doi.org/10.1108/03068290010694949
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