There are a number of organic, inorganic and hybrid inorganic waveguide materials that are currently being used for a wide variety of optical interconnect applications. Depending upon the approach, waveguide formation is performed using a combination of lithographic and/or reactive ion etch techniques. Often the processes involved with waveguide formation require unique processing conditions, hazardous process chemicals and specialized pieces of capital equipment. In addition, many of the materials have been optimized for silicon substrates but are not compatible with printed wire board (PWB) substrates and processes.
Shelnut, J., Moynihan, M., Little, L., Pugliano, N., Sicard, B., Zheng, H., Ho, T., Allen, C., Khanarian, G. and Pawlowski, N. (2004), "Aqueous base compatible waveguide materials for optical interconnect applications", Circuit World, Vol. 30 No. 2, pp. 25-29. https://doi.org/10.1108/03056120410512145
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