Over 30 years, many comparative surveys have found Japanese employees and managers far less satisfied with their jobs than their Western counterparts. This paper explores the findings and interpretations from these studies, and then proposes an alternative explanation based on childhood socialization practices and the history of Japanese society. This explanation is then used to illuminate the recent social problems of karoshi (death from overwork) and ijime (bullying) in the Japanese workplaces.
Meek, C. (2004), "The dark side of Japanese management in the 1990s:
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